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Beyond cycle lanes and large-scale infrastructure: a scoping review of initiatives that groups and organisations can implement to promote cycling for the Cycle Nation Project
  1. Paul Kelly1,
  2. Chloë Williamson1,
  3. Graham Baker1,
  4. Adrian Davis1,2,
  5. Sarah Broadfield3,
  6. Allison Coles3,
  7. Hayley Connell4,
  8. Greig Logan4,5,
  9. Jill P Pell4,
  10. Cindy M Gray4,
  11. Jason MR Gill4,5
  12. On behalf of the Cycle Nation Project
  1. 1 Physical Activity for Health Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  2. 2 Transport Research Institute, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK
  3. 3 British Cycling, Manchester, UK
  4. 4 Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
  5. 5 Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Paul Kelly, Physical Activity for Health Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 8AQ, UK; p.kelly{at}


Background/objectives Cycling has well-established positive relationships with health. Evidence suggests that large-scale infrastructure and built-environment initiatives to promote cycling are likely to be necessary but not sufficient to maximise cycling participation. Smaller-scale initiatives that can be implemented by organisations (eg, employers) and groups (eg, community groups) are therefore also important, but the full range of feasible activities to promote cycling is not known. We aimed to scope the literature and map organisational, social and individual level activities to increase cycling.

Methods Design: Scoping review following an established five-stage process.

Eligibility criteria: Studies or publicly available reports describing cycling promotion initiatives deemed feasible for organisations or groups to implement.

Sources of evidence and selection: (i) online databases (Ovid (Medline), Ovid (Embase), SportDISCUS (Ebscohost), ProQuest, Web of Science), (ii) existing systematic reviews, (iii) expert stakeholder consultation.

Results We extracted data from 129 studies and reports, from 20 different countries, identifying 145 cycling promotion initiatives. From these initiatives we identified 484 actions within 93 action types within 33 action categories under the nine intervention functions described by Michie et al. Environmental restructuring (micro-level), enablement, education and persuasion were the functions with the most action types, while coercion, modelling and restriction had the fewest action types.

Conclusion This is the first comprehensive map to summarise the broad range of action types feasible for implementation within organisation/group-based cycling promotion initiatives. The map will be a critical tool for communities, employers, practitioners and researchers in designing interventions to increase cycling.

  • cycling
  • physical activity
  • health promotion
  • behaviour

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  • Contributors PK, GB and CW led the work. PK, CG, JG, AC, HC, GL and GB conceptualised and designed the review. CW led the searching, study selection and data charting with SB and GB. CW, GL and HC led reporting and categorisation development with CG and JG. PK led the writing of this manuscript with all authors contributing to analysis, interpretation and discussion through multiple meetings and drafts.

  • Funding This work was funded by British Cycling and HSBC-UK as part of the Cycle Nation Project.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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