Objective We performed a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) using either quadriceps tendon graft (QT) or semitendinosus/gracilis hamstring (STG) graft. We compared subjective outcome (primary outcome) and knee stability, donor site morbidity and function (secondary outcomes).
Methods From 2013 to 2015, we included 99 adults with isolated ACL injuries in the RCT. Fifty patients were randomised to QT grafts and 49 to STG grafts and followed for 2 years. Patient evaluated outcomes were performed by subjective International Knee Documentation Committee, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Kujala and Tegner activity scores. Knee laxity was measured with a KT-1000 arthrometer. Donor site morbidity was evaluated by the ‘donor site-related functional problems following ACLR score’. One-leg hop test tested limp strength symmetry.
Results At 2-year follow-up, there was no difference between the two graft groups regarding subjective patient outcome, knee stability and reoperations. Also, at 2 years, donor site symptoms were present in 27% of patients in the QT group and 50% of patients in the STG group. The donor site morbidity score was 14 and 22 for the QT and STG, respectively. Hop test demonstrated lower limp symmetry for QT graft than STG graft of 91% and 97% respectively.
Conclusion QT graft for ACLR did not result in inferior subjective outcome compared with STG graft. However, QT graft was associated with lower donor site morbidity than STG grafts but resulted in more quadriceps muscle strength deficiency than hamstring grafts. Both graft types had similar knee stability outcome.
Trial registration number NCT02173483.
- quadriceps tendon
- hamstring tendon
- ACL reconstruction
- clinical outcomes
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Contributors ML has designed study, operated patients, analysed data and written paper. TGN has included patients, analysed data and written paper. OGS has operated patients and written paper. BM-K has operated patients and written paper. PF has operated patients and written paper.
Funding The study received financial support from Smith and Nephew Inc.
Competing interests ML has performed previous research on QT graft for ACL reconstruction which might bias the presentation of data.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study was approved by the Region Midtjylland Scientific Ethical Committee (approval no. 1-10-72-85-14) and by the Danish Data Protection Agency, and was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available on request.