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Infographic. Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine supplementation and exercise performance
  1. Jozo Grgic1,
  2. Ivana Grgic2,
  3. Craig Pickering3,
  4. Brad J Schoenfeld4,
  5. David John Bishop1,5,
  6. Adam Virgile6,
  7. Zeljko Pedisic1
  1. 1 Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2 County Hospital Schrobenhausen, Schrobenhausen, Germany
  3. 3 Institute of Coaching and Performance, School of Sport and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
  4. 4 Department of Health Sciences, Lehman College, Bronx, New York, USA
  5. 5 School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
  6. 6 a, New York City, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Jozo Grgic, Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; jozo.grgic{at}

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Caffeine has been used as a performance-enhancing aid by athletes for many years. The first known study to explore the effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise performance dates back to 1907.1 Until recently, however, findings on this topic remained equivocal, despite a large number of published studies over the last 30 to 40 years.2 There are many possible reasons for the discrepant results between these studies, but one likely issue could be a common use of relatively small samples. To reconcile the equivocal evidence on this topic and overcome the low statistical power of individual studies, researchers have started to use meta-analytical methods. Meta-analysis is a statistical method that allows pooling of results from studies that address a similar research question.3

Given that meta-analytical …

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  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it published Online First. The title has been updated.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.