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International Olympic Committee (IOC) Sport Mental Health Assessment Tool 1 (SMHAT-1) and Sport Mental Health Recognition Tool 1 (SMHRT-1): towards better support of athletes’ mental health
  1. Vincent Gouttebarge1,2,
  2. Abhinav Bindra3,
  3. Cheri Blauwet4,
  4. Niccolo Campriani5,
  5. Alan Currie6,7,
  6. Lars Engebretsen8,9,
  7. Brian Hainline10,
  8. Emily Kroshus11,12,
  9. David McDuff13,
  10. Margo Mountjoy14,
  11. Rosemary Purcell15,16,
  12. Margot Putukian17,
  13. Claudia L Reardon18,
  14. Simon M Rice15,16,
  15. Richard Budgett9
  1. 1 Amsterdam UMC, Univ of Amsterdam, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Amsterdam Collaboration on Health & Safety in Sports (ACHSS), Amsterdam UMC IOC Research Center of Excellence, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  3. 3 Athletes' Commission, International Olympic Committee, Lausanne, Switzerland
  4. 4 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  5. 5 Sports Department, International Olympic Committee, Lausanne, Switzerland
  6. 6 Regional Affective Disorders Service, Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle, UK
  7. 7 Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, The University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK
  8. 8 Orthopedic Clinic, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  9. 9 Medical and Scientific Department, International Olympic Committee, Lausanne, Switzerland
  10. 10 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  11. 11 Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  12. 12 Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA
  13. 13 Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  14. 14 Department of Family Medicine - Sport, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  15. 15 Orygen, The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  16. 16 Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  17. 17 Athletic Medicine, University Health Services, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
  18. 18 Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Vincent Gouttebarge, Amsterdam UMC, Univ of Amsterdam, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam, Netherlands; v.gouttebarge{at}amsterdamumc.nl

Abstract

Objectives To develop an assessment and recognition tool to identify elite athletes at risk for mental health symptoms and disorders.

Methods We conducted narrative and systematic reviews about mental health symptoms and disorders in active and former elite athletes. The views of active and former elite athletes (N=360) on mental health symptoms in elite sports were retrieved through an electronic questionnaire. Our group identified the objective(s), target group(s) and approach of the mental health tools. For the assessment tool, we undertook a modified Delphi consensus process and used existing validated screening instruments. Both tools were compiled during two 2-day meeting. We also explored the appropriateness and preliminary reliability and validity of the assessment tool.

Sport Mental Health Assessment Tool 1 and Sport Mental Health Recognition Tool 1 The International Olympic Committee Sport Mental Health Assessment Tool 1 (SMHAT-1) was developed for sports medicine physicians and other licensed/registered health professionals to assess elite athletes (defined as professional, Olympic, Paralympic or collegiate level; aged 16 years and older) potentially at risk for or already experiencing mental health symptoms and disorders. The SMHAT-1 consists of: (i) triage with an athlete-specific screening tool, (ii) six subsequent disorder-specific screening tools and (iii) a clinical assessment (and related management) by a sports medicine physician or licensed/registered mental health professional (eg, psychiatrist and psychologist). The International Olympic Committee Sport Mental Health Recognition Tool 1 (SMHRT-1) was developed for athletes and their entourage (eg, friends, fellow athletes, family and coaches).

Conclusion The SMHAT-1 and SMHRT-1 enable that mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes are recognised earlier than they otherwise would. These tools should facilitate the timely referral of those athletes in need for appropriate support and treatment.

  • psychology
  • sports medicine
  • mental
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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Footnotes

  • Twitter @vgouttebarge, @CABlauwet, @larsengebretsen, @margo.mountjoy, @Mputukian

  • Contributors All authors contributed to the development of the Sport Mental Health Assessment Tool 1 and Sport Mental Health Recognition Tool 1. The Delphi consensus process was led by EK, while the appropriateness and preliminary validity of the tool was led by VG. VG was responsible for the preparation of the manuscript. All other authors were responsible for the critical review of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research. Refer to the Methods section for further details.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval was provided by the University of Washington’s Institutional Review Board and the Medical Ethics Review Committee of the Amsterdam University Medical Centers (location AMC), while institutional approval was provided by the IOC Medical and Scientific Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.

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