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Methods for epidemiological studies in competitive cycling: an extension of the IOC consensus statement on methods for recording and reporting of epidemiological data on injury and illness in sport 2020
  1. Benjamin Clarsen1,2,
  2. Babette M Pluim3,4,5,
  3. Víctor Moreno-Pérez6,7,
  4. Xavier Bigard8,
  5. Cheri Blauwet9,
  6. Juan Del Coso10,
  7. Javier Courel-Ibáñez11,
  8. Katharina Grimm8,
  9. Nigel Jones12,
  10. Nikki Kolman13,14,
  11. Manuel Mateo-March15,
  12. Luca Pollastri16,
  13. Cesáreo López-Rodríguez17,
  14. Raquel Ortolano Ríos18,
  15. Michael Roshon19,
  16. Jésus Hoyos Echevarría20,
  17. Gwenaëlle Madouas21,
  18. Lars Petter Nordhaug22,
  19. Jon Patricios23,
  20. Evert Verhagen4
  1. 1 Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway
  2. 2 Centre for Disease Burden, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway
  3. 3 University of Pretoria Faculty of Health Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa
  4. 4 Amsterdam Collaboration on Health & Safety in Sports, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Movement Science, Amsterdam UMC Locatie VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  5. 5 Department of Sports Medicine, Royal Netherlands Lawn Tennis Association (KNLTB), Amstelveen, The Netherlands
  6. 6 Center for Translational Research in Physiotherapy, Miguel Hernandez University of Elche, Elche, Spain
  7. 7 Medical Department, Spanish Cycling Federation, Madrid, Spain
  8. 8 Medical Commission, Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), Aigle, Switzerland
  9. 9 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  10. 10 Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain
  11. 11 Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
  12. 12 Medical Department, British Cycling, Manchester, UK
  13. 13 Center for Human Movement Sciences, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  14. 14 Knowledge Centre for Sport & Physical Activity, Ede, The Netherlands
  15. 15 Performance and Medical Department, Movistar Cycling team, Pamplona, Spain
  16. 16 Medical Department, Team Bahrain McLaren, Lecco, Italy
  17. 17 Medical Commission, Spanish Cycling Federation, Madrid, Spain
  18. 18 Department of Sports Medicine, Team Astana Cycling, Abacanto, Luxembourg
  19. 19 Medical Department, USA Cycling, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA
  20. 20 Medical Department, Movistar Cycling Team, Pamplona, Spain
  21. 21 Department of Medical Services, Fédération Française de Cyclisme, Brest, France
  22. 22 Tønsberg, Norway
  23. 23 Wits Sport and Health (WiSH), School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  1. Correspondence to Dr Benjamin Clarsen, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Oslo 0806, Norway; ben.clarsen{at}


In 2020, the IOC released a consensus statement that provides overall guidelines for the recording and reporting of epidemiological data on injury and illness in sport. Some aspects of this statement need to be further specified on a sport-by-sport basis. To extend the IOC consensus statement on methods for recording and reporting of epidemiological data on injury and illness in sports and to meet the sport-specific requirements of all cycling disciplines regulated by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). A panel of 20 experts, all with experience in cycling or cycling medicine, participated in the drafting of this cycling-specific extension of the IOC consensus statement. In preparation, panel members were sent the IOC consensus statement, the first draft of this manuscript and a list of topics to be discussed. The expert panel met in July 2020 for a 1-day video conference to discuss the manuscript and specific topics. The final manuscript was developed in an iterative process involving all panel members. This paper extends the IOC consensus statement to provide cycling-specific recommendations on health problem definitions, mode of onset, injury mechanisms and circumstances, diagnosis classifications, exposure, study population characteristics and data collection methods. Recommendations apply to all UCI cycling disciplines, for both able-bodied cyclists and para-cyclists. The recommendations presented in this consensus statement will improve the consistency and accuracy of future epidemiological studies of injury and illness in cycling.

  • cycling
  • methodology
  • epidemiology

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  • BC and BMP are joint first authors.

  • Twitter @benclarsen, @docpluim, @CABlauwet, @jdelcoso, @JavierCourel, @mmateo_march, @jonpatricios, @Evertverhagen

  • Contributors Please see Methods section.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.