Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Infographic. Sex differences and ACL injuries
  1. Hana Marmura1,2,
  2. Dianne M Bryant3,4,
  3. Alan MJ Getgood2,5
  1. 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2 Orthopaedic Sport Medicine, Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic, London, Ontario, Canada
  3. 3 School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
  4. 4 Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  5. 5 Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alan MJ Getgood, University of Western Ontario Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, Ontario, Canada; alan.getgood{at}

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


Females are 2–10 times more likely to suffer an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males when playing the same sports,1 a discrepancy which has garnered significant research effort and warrants further attention.

It is critical to understand the sex-related differences influencing ACL injuries to improve research and care. The Sex and Gender Equity in Research Guidelines provide instructions for incorporating sex and gender differences into health research and emphasise the need to explicitly discuss the associated implications for interpretation of study results and clinical application: https://wwweaseorguk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Sagerfor-webpdf.2

While traditionally presented as dichotomous, biological sex is a nuanced topic with variations across the population. However, we are currently unable to draw any evidence-based conclusions regarding biological sex variations and ACL injuries, with rigorous research required in this …

View Full Text


  • Twitter @HanaMarmura

  • Contributors HM created the infographic and wrote the accompanying text. DMB provided guidance, feedback and edited and reviewed the infographic and accompanying text. AMJG provided guidance, clinical expertise and feedback and edited and reviewed the infographic and accompanying text.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests AMJG has received royalties from Smith & Nephew and Graymont Inc. and consulting fees from Smith & Nephew, Ossur and Olympus.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.