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With increasing frequency, reports of interpersonal violence (eg, abuse) are emerging from sport settings, across a range of sports.1–3 Individual sports with female-dominated membership statistics, feminine gender culture and low clothing levels (gymnastics, swimming) seem especially vulnerable to systemic abuse, and team sports with male-dominated gender structure, masculine gender culture and high clothing levels (ice hockey, American football) are also affected. Thus, it is clear that interpersonal violence is prevalent across a range of sport settings. But it can be difficult to understand.
This is because there are a range of athlete harms, various antecedent risk factors (structural, cultural, interpersonal), and a host …
Collaborators Steven McCarthy, Professor Emeritus, University of Minnesota College of Design.
Contributors YT-W conceived of and developed this work.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests YT-W is a British Journal of Sports Medicine Associate Editor.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.