Statistics from Altmetric.com
Environmental factors such as climate and pollution form a key part of major championship preparation.1 The Tokyo 2020 Olympic/Paralympic Games will present a unique combination of high thermal and ozone stressors. Japan has the highest levels of ozone in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; with annual peak values (65–73 ppb) aligning with the Olympic/Paralympic schedules (23 July to 5 September 2021).
Herein, we provide a synopsis of the effects and potential mitigating factors of air pollution on athlete health and performance. We integrate these recommendations with established guidelines on heat,1 to provide guidance for the 2020 Summer Olympic/Paralympic Games and beyond (figure 1).
Air pollution is a heterogeneous combination of both particles and gases that varies by location, time and season. Ground level ozone is a gas pollutant resulting from a chemical reaction between nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the presence of ultraviolet radiation.2 3 Due to ozone’s positive …
Twitter @Gareth_Sandford, @TStellingwerff, @mskoehle
Contributors SNG conceptualised the editorial with MSK. MSK and GNS wrote the editorial with TS providing critical input. GNS created the figure with critical feedback from MSK and TS. All authors contributed in drafting or revising the editorial and approved the final version to be published.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.