Background Many studies show the beneficial effects of sport activity on amputees. Understanding of biomechanical factors, performance and injury epidemiology in amputee soccer (AS) can contribute to implement injury prevention measures and develop suitable training programs to reduce number of injuries, increase sport performance, and ultimately improve quality of life in this population.
Objective To analyse incidence and/or prevalence of sports injuries in AS, to determine the impact of amputation on sports performance in AS, to examine biomechanics aspects of AS.
Design We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Journals@Ovid, Academic Search Ebsco using keywords (amput*, prosthe*, disarticulation, hemipelvectomy, crutch) AND (futbol, soccer, football*, athlete*).
Setting Any amputee soccer competition level.
Participants Amputee soccer players.
Interventions Any paper tackling the issue of the incidence, type, pattern of injury and/or describing biomechanical factors and/or sport performance in AS. Joanna Briggs Institute tools were used to assess the quality of studies.
Main Outcome Measurements Injury, biomechanics- and performance-specific outcomes.
Results From 375 articles, 26 studies were included related to injury (n=1), biomechanics (n=3), and performance (n=22) in AS. Majority of studies had a descriptive or analytical cross-sectional design. The results showed that AS is a sport with a low risk of injury and usage of Loftstrand crutches by players increase symmetrical gait pattern with better scapular resting position, than in other amputee wheelchair sports. None of the studies has met all criteria relevant to JBI tool.
Conclusions Analysis of the studies revealed that there is a base of knowledge on AS injuries, biomechanics, and athletic performance. However, limitations, in terms of methodological deficits, small sample size, and in some cases, laboratory setting, are reasons for future research to place greater importance on reducing the risk of bias to increase the reliability and validity of study results.
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