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Infographic. Ten naked truths about the pelvic floor in athletes
  1. Silvia Giagio1,2,
  2. Andrea Stracciolini3,4,
  3. Avery Faigenbaum5,
  4. Paolo Pillastrini1,
  5. Tamara Rial Rebullido6
  1. 1 Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
  2. 2 Division of Occupational Medicine, IRCCS University Hospital of Bologna S Orsola-Malpighi Polyclinic, Bologna, Italy
  3. 3 Division of Sports Medicine, Orthopedics Department, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  4. 4 Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  5. 5 Department of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey, USA
  6. 6 Department of Health and Physical Education, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Silvia Giagio, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; silvia.giagio2{at}

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Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is an umbrella term including a myriad of conditions including urinary and anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain and sexual dysfunction.1 High-impact sports have been linked with an increased risk of developing PFD. For instance, up to 76% of female volleyball players reported urinary symptoms.2

Despite the widespread occurrence and consequences of PFD, it remains under-reported by athletes.1 2 Misinformation, misperceptions and miseducation about PFD for both clinicians and athletes can adversely impact an athlete’s health, care, training and performance.2 3

We aimed to summarise 10 evidence-based truths regarding the athlete’s …

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  • Twitter @silvia_gig, @afaigenbaum

  • Contributors Conceptualisation: SG; writing—original draft preparation: SG, TRR and AF; writing—review and editing: SG, TRR, AF and AS; supervision: PP and AF; project administration: SG and TRR. All authors have read and agreed to the submitted version of the infographic.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.