DESCRIPTIONS OF MEASURES ASSESSING THE NON-PHYSICAL FEATURES OF PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN

MEASURE

DESCRIPTION

Mental health measures

36 item short form health survey – mental health component

(SF-36 MHC)

Mental health component of the 36-question short form health survey. Contains 14 items divided into four scales, of which three (mental health, role-emotional and social functioning) contribute mostly to the mental component scoring. The other (vitality) also correlates with the mental health component. Each item is answered on a Likert scale and then summed to give a raw score for each mental health concept which can then be used to gain a score from 0-100. Higher scores represent better mental health

EuroQol – 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) 3-level

5-item, standardised measure of health-related quality of Life. Each item/dimension has 3 possible response levels; no problems, some problems, extreme problems. Only one dimension is a direct psychological measure; anxiety/depression. In the youth version this dimension is labelled 'feeling worried, sad or unhappy'. EQ-5D results can be presented as a summary index or proportionally in relation to level responses.

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

14-item questionnaire developed to detect states of anxiety and depression in clinical settings. Consists of 7-item anxiety and depression sub-scales. Each item scored on a 4-point scale (0-3) giving each sub-scale a score range of 0-21. Higher sub-scale scores represent a higher likelihood of anxiety and/or depression. Overall ratings can also be used for measures of mood and emotional distress

Modified Karolinska Scales of Personality

135-item questionnaire that measures personality. All items are answered on a 4-point Likert scale then grouped into 15 scales. The version featured in this review was a modified version using only 10 of the original scales that primarily describe aspects of anxiety.

Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) – 25 items

The original HSCL was a 58-item self-report inventory covering 5 symptom dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, inter-personal sensitivity, depression, anxiety). The HSCL-25 (documented in this review) is 25-item, shortened version that focusses on 2 dimensions (anxiety and depression) (Heine et al, 2004). Each item is answered on a 4-point scale, ranging from 1 = not at all to 4 = extremely. An average item score (1.00-4.00) is then calculated.

Beck Anxiety Inventory

21-item questionnaire designed to measure the presence and level of anxiety. Each scale is scored on a 4 point Likert scale (0-3) giving a score range of 0-63. The higher the overall score, the worse the symptoms of anxiety.

Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory

40-item questionnaire designed to measure the presence and severity of anxiety symptoms. There are two sub-scales, both with 20 items each; one that measures current state of anxiety (S-anxiety) and one that measures more stable, trait, aspects of anxiety (T-anxiety). All items are answered on a 4-point scale. Scores are added with a higher score indicating greater levels of anxiety.

Cognitive Measures

Pain Catastrophizing Scale

13-item questionnaire that gives an overall scores and 3 sub-scores (rumination, magnification and helplessness). Developed to measure pain-related catastrophising. Each question is answered on a 5-point scale with 0 = not at all and 4 = all the time. Higher scores demonstrate higher levels of catastrophizing.

Coping Strategies Questionnaire

48-item questionnaire divided into eight sub-scales, each containing 6 items. Six subscales assess cognitive coping strategies and two assess behavioural strategies, all are answered on a 7-point scale with 0 = never and 6 = always. Also has two items that rate the overall effectiveness of the coping strategies which also use a 7-point scale with 0 = no control and 6 = complete control.

Utrecht Coping List

44-item questionnaire that measures 7 different coping strategies: active tackling, seeking social support, palliative reacting, avoiding, passive reacting, reassuring thoughts and expression of emotions. Methods of scoring unavailable in English literature.

Amsterdam Biographic Questionnaire

Database and online searches did not yield any English-written papers describing the instrument.

Behavioural Measures

Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia

17-item questionnaire designed to assess fear of movement or re-injury. Items are scored on a 4-point likert scale, then responses summed to yield a net score. Higher values indicate greater fear of movement.

Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire

16-item questionnaire designed to establish pain-related fear avoidance beliefs. The instrument has 2 sub-scales. The first consists of 5 items and quantifies fear about physical activity. The second consists of 11 items and quantifies fear about work. All items are scored from 0-6 and sub-scales are totalled, with higher scores representing increased fear avoidance beliefs.

Carlsson’s Dependency Scale

A self-administered scale created by Anna Carlsson. No instrument information available in the paper and no information available through database searches.

Other Related Measures

Coop-Wonca Chart

6-item questionnaire designed to measure health-related quality of life over the previous 2 weeks. Three of the 6 items pertain to psychosocial factors; (2) Feelings (emotional problems); (4) Social activities (levels of social activity); (5) Change in health (illness perception). Each item is answered on a 5-point scale with high scores indicating poorer levels of health.

Schalling-Sifneos Alexithymia Scale

The revised version is a 20-item questionnaire devised to measure alexithymia; a construct referring to a cognitive-affective style that influences personal experiences and expressions of emotion. Each item is answered ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

Carlsson’s Stress Scale

A self-administered scale created by Anna Carlsson. No instrument information available in the paper and no information available through database searches.

World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0.

A generic assessment instrument for health and disability. Can be used in the assessment of mental, neurological and addictive disorders. The 12-item version covers 6 domains: cognition; mobility; self-care; getting along; life activities and; participation. All answers are scored on a 5-point scale that ranges from ‘no difficulty = 0” to “extreme difficulty = 4”