Article Text

other Versions

Download PDFPDF
Validation of the VISA-A questionnaire for Turkish language: The VISA-A-Tr study
  1. Yunus Dogramaci (yunus_latif{at}
  1. Mustafa Kemal University, Medical Faculty, Deptartment of Orthopaedics, Turkey
    1. Aydýner Kalacý
    1. Mustafa Kemal University, Medical Faculty, Deptartment of Orthopaedics, Turkey
      1. Nigar Küçükkubaþ
      1. Mustafa Kemal University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Turkey
        1. Taceddin Ýnandý
        1. Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Turkey
          1. Erdinc Esen
          1. Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Ankara, Turkey
            1. Ahmet Nedim Yanat
            1. Mustafa Kemal University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Turkey
              1. Karim Khan (karim.khan{at}
              1. Centre for Hip Health and Mobility (CHHM), British Columbia University, Canada


                Objectives: In this study, the objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment – Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire for patients with Achilles tendnopathy.

                Design: Fifty-five patients with a diagnosis of Achilles tendinopathy and fifty five healthy subjects were included in the study. VISA-A questionnaire were translated and culturally adapted into Turkish language. The final Turkish version, the VISA-A Turkish version (VISA-A-Tr) was tested for reliability on healthy individuals and patients. Tests for internal consistency, validity and structure were performed on 55 patients.

                Results: The VISA-A-Tr showed good test-retest reliability (Pearson's r = 0.99, p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the first, second and third tests in both healthy individuals and patients.

                The patients with Achilles tendinopathy had a significantly lower score (p < 0.001) compared with the healthy individuals. The mean VISA-A-Tr score was 52.9±13.6 (range 24–72) for the patients and 97.1±1.5 (range 95–100) for the healthy individuals.

                The internal consistency of the scale (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.66. The VISA-A-Tr score correlated significantly with another tendon grading system (Spearman's r = -0.86; p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation with the physical domain of the quality of life assessment tool (WHOQOL-BREF) (Spearman's r= +0.37; p < 0.01).

                Conclusion: The Turkish version of the VISA-A is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating the severity of the Achilles tendinopathy.

                Statistics from

                Request Permissions

                If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.