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Dose-dependency of massage-like compressive loading on recovery of active muscle properties following eccentric exercise: rabbit study with clinical relevance
  1. Caroline Haas1,2,
  2. Timothy A Butterfield3,
  3. Yi Zhao2,
  4. Xiaoli Zhang4,
  5. David Jarjoura4,
  6. Thomas M Best1,2,5
  1. 1Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  2. 2Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  3. 3Division of Athletic Training, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Kentukcy, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  4. 4Center for Biostatistics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  5. 5Sports Health & Performance Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  1. Correspondence to Thomas M Best, OSU Sportsmedicine Center, 2050 Kenny Road, Suite 3100, Columbus, OH 43221, USA; Tom.Best{at}


Background Optimal strategies for massage and its use in athletes have not been conclusively demonstrated.

Purpose/study design Effects of varying duration, frequency and magnitude of massage-like compressive loading (MLL) on recovery of skeletal muscle active properties (torque angle (T-Θ) relationship) following exercise-induced muscle injury were studied.

Methods Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits were surgically instrumented with bilateral peroneal nerve cuffs for stimulation of hindlimb tibialis anterior muscles. Following a bout of eccentric exercise (EEX), rabbits were randomly assigned to a MLL protocol of 0.25 or 0.5 Hz at 5 or 10 N for 15 or 30 min. T-Θ was obtained for 21 tibiotarsal joint angles pre- and post-EEX and post 4 consecutive days of MLL. Muscle wet weight and H&E sections were obtained following final treatments.

Results EEX produced an average 61.8%±2.1 decrease in peak isometric torque output. Differences in torque recovery were found between magnitudes (5 and 10 N; p=0.004, n=12) and frequencies (0.25 and 0.5 Hz; p=0.012, n=12), but no difference for durations (15 and 30 min) with the 0.5 Hz, 10 N, 15 min protocol showing greatest recovery 4 days post-EEX. MLL muscle (n=12) wet weight was 3.22±0.18 g, while no MLL tissue (n=9) weighed 3.74±0.22 g (p=0.029). Histological analysis showed a difference in torn fibres between low-parameter and high-parameter MLL (6.5±1.04 vs 0.5±0.29 per 0.59 mm2, p=0.005).

Conclusions Results showed a dose-response effect for magnitude and frequency of MLL on recovery of active muscle properties following EEX. Future studies will investigate underlying biological mechanisms for this enhanced recovery of muscle function.

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  • Funding Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AT004922. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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