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Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium
  1. Phillip A Gribble1,
  2. Eamonn Delahunt2,
  3. Chris Bleakley3,
  4. Brian Caulfield4,
  5. Carrie Docherty5,
  6. François Fourchet6,
  7. Daniel Tik-Pui Fong7,
  8. Jay Hertel8,
  9. Claire Hiller9,
  10. Thomas Kaminski10,
  11. Patrick McKeon11,
  12. Kathryn Refshauge9,
  13. Philip van der Wees12,
  14. Bill Vincenzino13,
  15. Erik Wikstrom14
  1. 1University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA
  2. 2School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  3. 3Univerisity of Ulster, Jordanstown, Carrickfergus, UK
  4. 4School of Physiotherapy, University College Dublin, Dublin, UK
  5. 5University of Indiana, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  6. 6Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  7. 7Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  8. 8Kinesiology Program, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
  9. 9Department of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  10. 10Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, New Jersey, USA
  11. 11Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  12. 12Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Area, Netherlands
  13. 13Department of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  14. 14University of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Phillip Gribble, University of Toledo, Mailstop #119 2801 W. Bancroft, Toledo, OH 43606, USA; phillip.gribble{at}


While research on chronic ankle instability (CAI) and awareness of its impact on society and health care systems has grown substantially in the last 2 decades, the inconsistency in participant/patient selection criteria across studies presents a potential obstacle to addressing the problem properly. This major gap within the literature limits the ability to generalise this evidence to the target patient population. Therefore, there is a need to provide standards for patient/participant selection criteria in research focused on CAI with justifications using the best available evidence. The International Ankle Consortium provides this position paper to present and discuss an endorsed set of selection criteria for patients with CAI based on the best available evidence to be used in future research and study designs. These recommendations will enhance the validity of research conducted in this clinical population with the end goal of bringing the research evidence to the clinician and patient.

  • Ankle injuries
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