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Correction: Persistent effects of playing football and associated (subconcussive) head trauma on brain structure and function: a systematic review of the literature

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Table 2 (section: Category†) contained some errors. The correct version of the table is as follows.

Table 2 Summary information about included studies (n=30)

Studies (n, (%))Female football players (n (%))Male football players (n (%))All football players (n (%))
Control of type-1 errors
 Appropriate12 (40.0)104 (27.4)414 (31.6)518 (30.6)
 Inappropriate / unclear18 (60.0)275 (72.6)898 (68.4)1173 (69.4)
 Total30 (100.0)379 (100.0)1312 (100.0)1691 (100.0)
Selection of controls
 Appropriate12 (40.0)12 (11.1)224 (54.2)236 (45.3)
 Inappropriate / unclear8 (26.7)96 (88.9)189 (45.8)285 (54.7)
 NA10 (33.3)N/AN/AN/A
 Total30 (100.0)108 (100.0)413 (100.0)521 (100.0)
Response rate*
 High (>50%)7 (23.3)0 (0.0)462 (35.2)462 (27.3)
 Low (≤50%)3 (10.0)0 (0.0)135 (10.3)135 (8.0)
 Not reported20 (66.7)379 (100.0)715 (54.5)1094 (64.7)
 Total30 (100.0)379 (100.0)1312 (100.0)1691 (100.0)
Gender
 Football playersN/A379 (22.4)1312 (77.6)1691 (100.0)
 Control subjectsN/A108 (20.7)413 (79.3)521 (100.0)
Category†
 NCT2336511531518
 Case-control studies1414-16 27-29 31 34 37 38 47 52 57 59 56525581
 Impact of heading1712-19 28 29 32 34 37 52 53 57 59 3108631173
 Impact of head-injuries1313-19 27 31-33 49 52 2938101103
 Neuroimaging817 37 38 44 48 50 51 54 22121143
 EEG255 56 0106106
 Postural control137 01515
Level of play‡
 Youth3 (10.0)69 (18.2)100 (7.6)169 (10.0)
 High-school / college9 (30.0)280 (73.9)234 (17.8)514 (30.4)
 University3 (10.0)22 (5.8)47 (3.6)69 (4.1)
 Amateur2 (6.7)8 (2.1)62 (4.7)70 (4.1)
 Professional8 (26.7)0 (0.0)677 (51.6)677 (40.0)
 Former professional5 (16.7)0 (0.0)192 (14.6)192 (11.4)
 Total30 (100.0)379 (100.0)1312 (100.0)1691 (100.0)
  • *Fraction of participants that agreed to participate after being invited to participate in the study. This includes football players and control participants.

  • †Some studies provided testing for more than one modality (eg, neurocognitive testing and neuroimaging or neuroimaging and balance testing), resulting in a total study number larger than 31. Within neurocognitive testing, also some studies provided case–control data as well as a correlation analysis for, for example, heading frequency and neurocognitive deficits in the football players.

  • ‡Level of play as reported in the original studies. Age range for youth football players was 10–131 and 13–18.2 The category ‘High school/college’ includes the ‘interscholastic’ as well.

  • NA, not available; NCT, neurocognitive testing.

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