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Infographic. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on pain management in athletes: non-pharmacological strategies
  1. Brian Hainline1,
  2. Wayne Derman2,3,
  3. Alan Vernec4,
  4. Richard Budgett5,
  5. Masataka Deie6,
  6. Jiri Dvorak7,8,
  7. Christopher A Harle9,
  8. Stanley Herring10,
  9. Michael McNamee11,
  10. Willem Meeuwisse12,
  11. G Lorimer Moseley13,
  12. Bade Omololu14,
  13. John Orchard15,
  14. Andrew Pipe16,
  15. Babette M Pluim16,17,
  16. Johan Raeder18,
  17. David Siebert19,
  18. Mike Stewart20,
  19. Mark Campbell Stuart21,
  20. Judith Turner22,
  21. Mark Ware23,
  22. David Zideman24,
  23. Lars Engebretsen25
  1. 1National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  2. 2Instiute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  3. 3International Olympic Committee Research Centre, Cape Town, South Africa
  4. 4WADA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  5. 5International Olympic Committee, Lausanne, Switzerland
  6. 6Orthopedic Surgery, Aichi Ika Daigaku, Aichi-gun, Aichi, Japan
  7. 7Swiss Concussion Center, Zurich, Switzerland
  8. 8Spine Unit, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
  9. 9Health Policy and Management, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  10. 10Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  11. 11College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
  12. 12Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  13. 13University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  14. 14Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ibadan College of Medicine, Ibadan, Western Nigeria, Nigeria
  15. 15School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  16. 16Sports Medicine, Royal Netherlands Lawn Tennis Association, Amersfoort, The Netherlands
  17. 17Home, Ede, The Netherlands
  18. 18Anaesthesiology, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway
  19. 19Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  20. 20Physical Therapy, East Kent Hospitals University, Canterbury, UK
  21. 21BMJ Learning, BMJ Group, London, UK
  22. 22Psychology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
  23. 23Pain Management, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  24. 24International Olympic Committee Medical and Scientific Games Group, Lausanne, Switzerland
  25. 25Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  1. Correspondence to Dr Brian Hainline, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; bhainline{at}ncaa.org

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Pain and injury are not synonymous. Pain can occur without sport injury, and sport injury may not necessarily manifest with pain. It is …

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