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The high prevalence of caffeine intake by athletes has prompted researchers to explore its effects on sport and exercise performance, with a particular focus on optimal guidelines for caffeine supplementation.1 The 2018 International Olympic Committee consensus statement on dietary supplements has identified caffeine as one of the few supplements that have good evidence of benefits for performance.2 A recent umbrella review examined caffeine’s effect on exercise performance and highlighted that caffeine ingestion has a small—but significant—ergogenic effect on muscle strength and anaerobic power, along with moderate effect sizes for aerobic and muscle endurance.3 These data explain why caffeine is similarly consumed in sports with very different physiological demands4 and support the notion that caffeine is ergogenic across a broad range of exercise tasks. …
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