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Overweight and obesity, defined as ‘abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health’,1 has nearly tripled since 1975. With ~1.9 billion and 650 million adults overweight and obese, respectively, these conditions have reached epidemic levels,1 with devastating health consequences.2 Traditionally, in clinical practice, diagnosis is made with the use of anthropometric measures (height and weight, waist and hip circumferences), while weight loss is the treatment goal for all interventions. Despite this, the scientific understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity has evolved, revealing ‘the many shades of adiposity’ (figure 1) that underlie this …
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