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Infographic. Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine supplementation and exercise performance
  1. Jozo Grgic1,
  2. Ivana Grgic2,
  3. Craig Pickering3,
  4. Brad J Schoenfeld4,
  5. David John Bishop1,5,
  6. Adam Virgile6,
  7. Zeljko Pedisic1
  1. 1Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2County Hospital Schrobenhausen, Schrobenhausen, Germany
  3. 3Institute of Coaching and Performance, School of Sport and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
  4. 4Department of Health Sciences, Lehman College, Bronx, New York, USA
  5. 5School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
  6. 6a, New York City, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Jozo Grgic, Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; jozo.grgic{at}live.vu.edu.au

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Caffeine has been used as a performance-enhancing aid by athletes for many years. The first known study to explore the effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise performance dates back to 1907.1 Until recently, however, findings on this topic remained equivocal, despite a large number of published studies over the last 30 to 40 years.2 There are many possible reasons for the discrepant results between these studies, but one likely issue could be a common use of relatively small samples. To reconcile the equivocal evidence on this topic and overcome the low statistical power of individual studies, researchers have started to use meta-analytical methods. Meta-analysis is a statistical method that allows pooling of results from studies that address a similar research question.3

Given that meta-analytical …

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