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Youth running consensus statement: minimising risk of injury and illness in youth runners
  1. Brian J Krabak1,
  2. William O Roberts2,
  3. Adam S Tenforde3,
  4. Kathryn E Ackerman4,
  5. Paolo Emilio Adami5,
  6. Aaron L Baggish6,
  7. Michelle Barrack7,
  8. John Cianca8,
  9. Irene Davis9,
  10. Pierre D'Hemecourt4,
  11. Michael Fredericson10,
  12. Joshua T Goldman11,
  13. Mark A Harrast1,
  14. Bryan C Heiderscheit12,
  15. Karsten Hollander13,
  16. Emily Kraus14,
  17. Anthony Luke15,
  18. Emily Miller11,
  19. Melissa Moyer16,
  20. Mitchell J Rauh17,
  21. Brett G Toresdahl18,
  22. Meagan M Wasfy6
  1. 1Rehabilitation, Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Univesrity of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  2. 2Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
  3. 3Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  4. 4Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  5. 5Health and Science, IAAF Health & Science Department, International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), Monaco
  6. 6Cardiovascular Performance Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  7. 7Family and Consumer Sciences, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USA
  8. 8Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
  9. 9Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Running Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  10. 10Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  11. 11Sports Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
  12. 12Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  13. 13MSH Medical School Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  14. 14Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, California, USA
  15. 15Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
  16. 16Sports Physical Therapy, Sanford Health, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA
  17. 17School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
  18. 18Primary Care Sports Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Brian J Krabak, Rehabilitatiion, Orthopedics and. Sports Medicine, Univesrity of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; bkrabak{at}


Despite the worldwide popularity of running as a sport for children, relatively little is known about its impact on injury and illness. Available studies have focused on adolescent athletes, but these findings may not be applicable to preadolescent and pubescent athletes. To date, there are no evidence or consensus-based guidelines identifying risk factors for injury and illness in youth runners, and current recommendations regarding suitable running distances for youth runners at different ages are opinion based. The International Committee Consensus Work Group convened to evaluate the current science, identify knowledge gaps, categorise risk factors for injury/illness and provide recommendations regarding training, nutrition and participation for youth runners.

  • running
  • injury
  • prevention
  • consensus statement
  • young
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  • Twitter @BrianKrabak@BrianKrabakMD, @AdamTenfordeMD, @drkateackerman, @paolo_emilio, @DrJoshGoldman, @emilykrausmd, @moyermel

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it published Online First. The author, Irene Davis, has been added and tables 1, 4 and 5 updated.

  • Contributors All authors meet criteria for authorship for the manuscript in the following ways: substantial contribution to the conception or design of the manuscript, or the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of the data; drafting and revising the manuscript; final approval of the version publish and agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work relating to the accuracy and integrity. No one meeting the criteria for authorship has been excluded from authorship.

  • Funding The authors wish to thank the following individuals and organisation for their valuable assistant in the development of this document: Andrea Ball MLS, VMA, MSIM, University of Washington for her assistance with the literature search methodology and National Youth Sports Health and Safety Institute for their conference support.

  • Disclaimer This consensus paper provides an overview of risk factors for injury and readiness for running in the youth athlete. It is not intended as a clinical practice guideline or legal standard of care and should not be interpreted as such. The consensus paper serves as a guide for healthcare professionals. Individual evaluation and treatment will depend on the circumstances specific to each individual case.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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