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Infographic. Clinical recommendations for return to play during the COVID-19 pandemic
  1. Herbert Löllgen1,2,
  2. Norbert Bachl1,3,4,5,
  3. Theodora Papadopoulou1,3,6,7,
  4. Andrew Shafik7,
  5. Graham Holloway7,
  6. Karin Vonbank8,
  7. Nigel Edward Jones7,9,
  8. Xavier Bigard1,10,
  9. David Niederseer11,
  10. Joachim Meyer12,13,
  11. Borja Muniz-Pardos14,
  12. Andre Debruyne1,3,
  13. Petra Zupet1,15,
  14. Jürgen M Steinacker1,3,16,
  15. Bernd Wolfarth3,17,
  16. James Lee John Bilzon3,7,18,
  17. Anca Ionescu1,19,
  18. Michiko Dohi3,20,
  19. Jeroen Swart3,21,
  20. Victoriya Badtieva3,22,23,
  21. Irina Zelenkova14,22,
  22. Maurizio Casasco1,3,24,
  23. Michael Geistlinger3,25,
  24. Luigi Di Luigi3,26,
  25. Nick Webborn27,
  26. Patrick Singleton28,
  27. Mike Miller28,
  28. Fabio Pigozzi1,3,29,30,
  29. Yannis P Pitsiladis1,3,31
  1. 1European Federation of Sports Medicine Associations (EFSMA), Lausanne, Switzerland
  2. 2Cardiology Practice, Remscheid, Germany
  3. 3International Federation of Sports Medicine (FIMS), Lausanne, Switzerland
  4. 4Institute of Sports Science, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  5. 5Austrian Institute of Sports Medicine, Vienna, Austria
  6. 6Lower Limbs-ADMR Hip & Groin, Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre Headley Court, Loughborought, UK
  7. 7British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Doncaster, UK
  8. 8Department of Pulmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  9. 9University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  10. 10Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), Aigle, Switzerland
  11. 11Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  12. 12German Respiratory Society (DGP), Berlin, Germany
  13. 13Lungenzentrum (Bogenhausen-Harlaching), München Klinik, Munich, Germany
  14. 14GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development), Department of Physiatry and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
  15. 15Institute for Medicine and Sport, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  16. 16Division of Sports and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm, Germany
  17. 17Department of Sport Medicine, Humboldt University and Charité University School of Medicine, Berlin, Germany
  18. 18Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK
  19. 19Sports Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
  20. 20Sport Medical Center, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
  21. 21UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Universisty of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  22. 22I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation
  23. 23Moscow Research and Practical Centre for Medical Rehabilitation, Restorative and Sports Medicine, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow, Russian Federation
  24. 24Italian Federation of Sports Medicine (FMSI), Rome, Italy
  25. 25Department of Public, International and European Law, Unit of International Law, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
  26. 26Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy
  27. 27School of Sport and Service Management, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, UK
  28. 28World Olympians Association, Lausanne, Switzerland
  29. 29Sports Medicine Unit, University of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy
  30. 30FIFA Medical Center of Excellence, Villa Stuart Sport Clinic, Rome, Italy
  31. 31Collaborating Centre of Sports Medicine, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Yannis P Pitsiladis, Collaborating Centre of Sports Medicine, University of Brighton, Eastbourne BN20 7SN, UK; Y.Pitsiladis{at}

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COVID-19 and return to play

The world of sport has recently returned to training and competition following suspension due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is concerning that a number of athletes have tested positive for COVID-19 after returning to competition.1 Numerous authors have attempted to address return to play given the importance and complexity of the issue, with notable attention on possible cardiac implications.2–6

Scope of the infographic

The specific recommendations shown in the present infographic (figure 1) have been generated by a panel of international experts and represent a compilation of the numerous approaches used to inform resumption of regular sports during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the different regulations around the world and the particular characteristics of each sport, it is essential to provide informative, consistent and specific guidance for safe …

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