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Impact of in-season injury on quality of life and sleep duration in female youth volleyball athletes: a prospective study of 2073 players
  1. Andrew Watson1,
  2. Kevin Biese2,
  3. Stephanie A Kliethermes1,
  4. Eric Post3,
  5. M Alison Brooks1,
  6. Pamela J Lang1,
  7. David R Bell2,
  8. Kristin Haraldsdottir1,
  9. Timothy McGuine1
  1. 1School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  2. 2Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  3. 3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrew Watson, University of Wisconsin Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; watson{at}


Objectives The psychological impacts of injuries in youth athletes remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of injury on quality of life (QOL) and sleep in female high school volleyball athletes.

Methods 2073 female high school volleyball players (15.6±1.1 years) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life survey (total QOL, physical, social, school, emotional and psychosocial function) and reported average sleep duration at the start and end of the season. Injury data were collected by school athletic trainers. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to compare changes in QOL and sleep duration during the season between (1) injured and uninjured athletes and (2) injured athletes who did or did not suffer a season-ending injury.

Results Time-loss injuries were reported in 187 athletes with complete preseason and postseason data. During the season, injured athletes demonstrated a greater decrease in total QOL (β=−1.3±0.5, p=0.012), as well as physical function (β=−1.6±0.6, p=0.012), school function (β=−2.0±0.76, p=0.01) and psychosocial function domains (β=−1.2±0.6, p=0.039) compared with uninjured athletes. Athletes who sustained a season-ending injury had a significantly greater decrease in total QOL (β=−6.8±2.0, p=0.006) and physical function (β=-17±2.9, p<0.001) compared with injured athletes who were able to return to play during the season.

Conclusion In-season injuries are associated with significant decreases in total QOL as well as physical and psychosocial function. Healthcare providers should consider the impacts of injuries on QOL and sleep in youth athletes in order to optimise management and improve overall health.

  • quality of life
  • athlete
  • injury
  • sport

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  • Twitter @stephklie2, @DrABrooksUWisc

  • Contributors All authors contributed to the development of this work, including the development of the study design, data collection, analysis, writing and final approval of the manuscript.

  • Funding Funding for this study was provided by research grants provided by the National Federation of State High School Associations, the University of Wisconsin Graduate School and the Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. AW is supported by grants from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR002373; KL2TR002374).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Informed written consent was obtained from adult athletes (≥18 years of age) and parents of minor athletes, while informed written assent was obtained from minor athletes. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request. Data are deidentified and available from the primary author.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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