Objective We assessed past-season, pre-season and in-season risk factors to investigate their association with an in-season groin problem in male amateur football players.
Methods Past-season groin-pain information and pre-season short-lever and long-lever adductor squeeze strength were obtained at baseline, together with anthropometrics (weight, lower limb lever length) and player age. In-season hip-related and groin-related sporting function was monitored every 4 weeks using the Sports and Recreation (Sport) subscale from the Hip And Groin Outcome Score questionnaire (HAGOS (Sport)). Groin problems, including time-loss groin injuries and groin pain irrespective of time loss, were collected over a 39-week competitive in-season. We estimated relative risk (RR), and 95% credibility interval (ICr) from logistic regressions fitted in a Bayesian framework.
Results Players (n=245) suffering from groin pain during the past-season had 2.4 times higher risk of experiencing a groin problem in the new season (2.40 RR; 95% ICr 1.5 to 3.7). This risk was reduced by 35% (0.65 RR; 95% ICr 0.42 to 0.99) per unit (N·m/kg) increase in the long-lever adductor squeeze test. Player age, short-lever squeeze test and the HAGOS (Sport) scores were not associated with the risk of a groin problem.
Conclusions Past-season groin pain increased the risk of a groin problem in the new in-season. This risk was reduced by higher pre-season long-lever adductor squeeze strength. Past-season groin-pain information and long-lever adductor squeeze strength can be quickly obtained during pre-season to identify players with an elevated risk of in-season groin problems. This may be key to reduce these problems in the new season.
- groin injuries
- groin pain
- hip strength
- Bayesian inference
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Twitter @CasalsTMarti, @MichaelRathleff, @mikkelbek, @jordivicensb, @PerHölmich, @DrTaniaPizzari, @KThorborg
Contributors EE, KT, MSR, MBC and PH have contributed to the original idea of this work, design, analyses and interpretation of the data. JV-B has contributed together with EE in data collection, as well as interpretation of the data. MC and MS contributed in analyses, and visualisation and interpretation of the data. TP has contributed in interpretation of the results, writing and reviewing the manuscript. All authors have participated in writing the paper and revising it critically for important intellectual content, as well as the final approval of the version to be published.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval This study was approved by the Comitè d'Ètica d'Investigacions Clíniques de l'Administració Esportiva de Catalunya (reference number 08/2015/CEICEGC).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Authors are happy to share the data upon reasonable request.
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