Background Despite being the most commonly incurred sports injury with a high recurrence rate, there are no guidelines to inform return to sport (RTS) decisions following acute lateral ankle sprain injuries. We aimed to develop a list of assessment items to address this gap.
Methods We used a three-round Delphi survey approach to develop consensus of opinion among 155 globally diverse health professionals working in elite field or court sports. This involved surveys that were structured in question format with both closed-response and open-response options. We asked panellists to indicate their agreement about whether or not assessment items should support the RTS decision after an acute lateral ankle sprain injury. The second and third round surveys included quantitative and qualitative feedback from the previous round. We defined a priori consensus being reached at >70% agree or disagree responses.
Results Sixteen assessment items reached consensus to be included in the RTS decision after an acute lateral ankle sprain injury. They were mapped to five domains with 98% panellist agreement—PAASS: Pain (during sport participation and over the last 24 hours), Ankle impairments (range of motion; muscle strength, endurance and power), Athlete perception (perceived ankle confidence/reassurance and stability; psychological readiness), Sensorimotor control (proprioception; dynamic postural control/balance), Sport/functional performance (hopping, jumping and agility; sport-specific drills; ability to complete a full training session).
Conclusion Expert opinion indicated that pain severity, ankle impairments, sensorimotor control, athlete perception/readiness and sport/functional performance should be assessed to inform the RTS decision following an acute lateral ankle sprain injury.
Trial registration number ACTRN12619000522112.
- sprains and strains
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request.
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Twitter @MichelleD_Smith, @Bill_Vicenzino, @RoaldBahr, @TBandholm, @luludemichelis, @gribblepa, @AndreaMacaluso3, @owoeye_oba, @TassignonBruno, @KThorborg, @Evertverhagen, @RodWhiteley, @ea_wikstrom, @EamonnDelahunt
Contributors MDS, BV and ED were responsible for the conception of the study, drafting of the surveys for data collection and qualitative analysis of free text data. All authors were responsible for recruitment and communication with participants (ie, panellists), reviewing surveys and qualitative analysis, and contributing to mapping of RTS outcomes to domains. Data analysis was undertaken by MDS, BV and ED and presented to the authorship team for feedback. All authors contributed to the interpretation of findings and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests KT, TB, OBAO, ED and EV are on the BJSM Editorial Board.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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