Article Text

The VISA-A (sedentary) should be used for sedentary patients with Achilles tendinopathy: a modified version of the VISA-A developed and evaluated in accordance with the COSMIN checklist


Objective To develop and evaluate a modified version of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire, for use in sedentary patients with Achilles tendinopathy, using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments recommendations.

Methods Twenty-two sedentary patients with Achilles tendinopathy completed the VISA-A and provided feedback regarding the relevance, comprehensiveness and comprehensibility of each item, response options and instructions. Patient and professional feedback was used to develop the VISA-A (sedentary) questionnaire. Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the VISA-A (sedentary) was evaluated in 51 sedentary patients with Achilles tendinopathy: 47.1% women, mean age 64.8 (SD 11.24).

Results Factor analysis identified two dimensions (symptoms and activity) for the VISA-A (sedentary). Test–retest reliability was excellent for symptoms (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC=0.991) and activity (ICC=0.999). Repeatability was 1.647 for symptoms and 0.549 for activity. There was a significant difference between the VISA-A and VISA-A (sedentary) scores both pretreatment and post-treatment. There was stronger correlation between the pretreatment to post-treatment change in the VISA-A (sedentary) scores (r=0.420 for symptoms, r=0.407 for activity) and the global rating of change than the VISA-A scores (r=0.253 for symptoms, r=0.186 for activity).

Conclusion The VISA-A (sedentary) demonstrates adequate reliability, validity and responsiveness in sedentary patients with Achilles tendinopathy. The VISA-A (sedentary) is a more appropriate measure than the VISA-A for this cohort and is recommended for clinical and research purposes.

  • Achilles
  • Tendinopathy

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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