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Environmental challenges facing athletes, stakeholders and spectators at Paris 2024 Olympic and Paralympic Games: an evidence-based review of mitigation strategies and recommendations
  1. Loïs Mougin1,
  2. Valérie Bougault2,
  3. Sébastien Racinais3,4,
  4. Margo L Mountjoy5,
  5. Ben Stephenson1,6,
  6. Sarah Carter7,
  7. Lewis J James1,
  8. Stephen A Mears1,
  9. Lee Taylor1,8
  1. 1 School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
  2. 2 LAMHESS, Université Côte d’Azur, Nice, France
  3. 3 Environmental Stress Unit, CREPS Montpellier Font-Romeu, Montpellier, France
  4. 4 DMEM, UMR 866 INRAE / University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
  5. 5 Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  6. 6 UK Sports Institute, Loughborough, UK
  7. 7 Faculty of Health, Exercise and Sports Science, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
  8. 8 University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Lee Taylor, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; l.taylor2{at}


The upcoming Paris 2024 Olympic and Paralympic Games could face environmental challenges related to heat, air quality and water quality. These challenges will pose potential threats to athletes and impact thousands of stakeholders and millions of spectators. Recognising the multifaceted nature of these challenges, a range of strategies will be essential for mitigating adverse effects on participants, stakeholders and spectators alike. From personalised interventions for athletes and attendees to comprehensive measures implemented by organisers, a holistic approach is crucial to address these challenges and the possible interplay of heat, air and water quality factors during the event. This evidence-based review highlights various environmental challenges anticipated at Paris 2024, offering strategies applicable to athletes, stakeholders and spectators. Additionally, it provides recommendations for Local Organising Committees and the International Olympic Committee that may be applicable to future Games. In summary, the review offers solutions for consideration by the stakeholders responsible for and affected by the anticipated environmental challenges at Paris 2024.

  • IOC
  • Elite performance
  • Water Sports
  • Public health
  • Hot Temperature

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  • X @@LoisMougin, @VBougault, @ephysiol, @@margomountjoy, @@bstephenson311, @_SKCarter, @@LJJ_nutrition, @@steve_mears, @@DrLeeTaylor

  • Contributors LM, SM and LT conceptualised the article. LM and LT wrote the article, with VB, SR, MLM, BS, LJJ, SM and SC providing critical input. SC designed and created the figure, with LM and LT providing content and critical input. All authors contributed to drafting or revising the manuscript and approved the final version to be published. LT ( is the guarantor.

  • Funding LM is a doctoral researcher funded by a Vice-Chancellor's Fellowship at Loughborough University, with funding aligned to the Sports for Climate Action and Nature (SCAN) cluster.

  • Competing interests MLM is Deputy Editor of BJSM, and on the Editorial Board of the BJSM Injury Prevention and Health Promotion Journal. SR is Associate Editor of BJSM. LJJ and SM have current/previous fundings from the food/nutrition industry.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.