Table 4

Relative risk ratio by sport and gender for clinically relevant depressive symptoms

Gender/sportClinical level of depression
CES-D ≥16
Moderate/severe level of depression
CES-D ≥27
Relative risk ratio
Clinical level of depression
CES-D ≥16
Relative risk ratio
95% CI
Female track and field37.7%*6.6%2.2571.272 to 4.002
Female softball30.4%13.0%1.4460.578 to 3.617
Female soccer31.0%10.3%1.5000.661 to 3.403
Male track and field25.0%15.0%1.0940.388 to 3.086
Male baseball17.8%11.1%0.6750.304 to 1.500
Female lacrosse16.7%4.8%0.6220.268 to 1.446
Male soccer13.0%0%0.4710.137 to 1.616
Male lacrosse11.6%*1.4%*0.3770.174 to 0.817
  • *p<0.05.

  • CES-D, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.