Table 3

Evidence of associations between subjective and objective (endocrine and erythrocytes) measures

 Total mood disturbancexxxxxxxxxxxxx
 Recovery-Stress Indexxxxxxxxxxx??
  General stressxxx??
  Emotional stressxxxx??
  Social stressxxxx?x?xxx
  Lack of energy?xxxxxxxx??
  Physical symptomsxxx?xxxxxx??
  Emotional exhaustionxxxx??
  Disturbed breaksxxx??
  Social recovery???
  Physical recoveryxxxxxxxxx??
  General well-beingxxxxxxxxx??
  Sleep qualityxxx??
  Being in shapexxx?xxxxxxxx?x
  Personal accomplishmentxxx??
 Overtraining score???x
 Sources of stress
 Symptoms of stressxxx
  • Associations rated as positive (↑), negative (↓), not associated (x), conflicting findings (?), no change (–). Three symbols indicates strong evidence, two symbols for moderate evidence, and one symbol for limited evidence. Shading highlights strong (dark grey) and moderate (light grey) associations. Abbreviations for objective measures: cortisol (C), testosterone (T), epinephrine and norepinephrine (E/NE), prolactin (Pro), growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinising hormone (LH), dopamine (Dop), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), erythrocytes (RBC), Haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb). n refers to number of contributing studies.

  • POMS, Profile of Mood States; RESTQ-S, Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes; SFMS, Societe Francaise de Medecine du Sport; DALDA, Daily Analyses of Life Demands of Athletes.