Table 4

Evidence of associations between subjective and objective (immune, inflammation and muscle damage) measures

ImmuneInflammation and muscle damage
LeukIgAIgGIL-1BIL-6IL-8IL-10IL-12p70TNF-αα-amylaseCRPOx. StressGSH: GSSGUreaCreatinineCK
 Total mood disturbancexxx?xxxx?xxxxx
 Recovery-Stress Indexxxxxxx?x
  General stressxxxxxx↑↑
  Emotional stressxxxxxxx↑↑
  Social stress?xxx?↑
  Lack of energyxxxxxx?x
  Physical symptomsxxxxxxx?↑
  Emotional exhaustionxxxxxxx↑↑
  Disturbed breaksxxxxxxx?
  Social recoveryxxxxxxxxx
  Physical recoveryxxxxxx?↓
  General well-beingxxxxxx?↓
  Sleep qualityxxxxxxx?
  Being in shapexxxxx?↓
  Personal accomplishmentxxxxxxxxx
 Sources of stressxx
 Symptoms of stressxxx
 State anxietyx
 Total scorexxxxxx
  Depressed moodxx
  Perceived vigourxxx
  Physical symptomsxxxx
  Sleep disturbancexx
  Perceived stressxx
  General fatiguexx
 All subscales
  • Associations rated as positive (↑), negative (↓), not associated (x), conflicting findings (?), no change (–). Three symbols indicates strong evidence, two symbols for moderate evidence and one symbol for limited evidence. Shading highlights a moderate association. Abbreviations for objective measures: leukocytes (Leuk), immunoglobulin-A (IgA), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), interleukins (IL-), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP), oxidative stress (Ox. stress), reduced-oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), creatine kinase (CK). n refers to number of contributing studies.

  • POMS, Profile of Mood States; RESTQ-S, Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes; DALDA, Daily Analyses of Life Demands of Athletes; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; MTDS, Multi-Component Training Distress Scale.