Table 4

Clinical tests used to diagnose pubic aponeurosis, adductor and hip pathology

DiagnosisTestSens (%)Spec (%)PPV (%)NPV (%)+LR−LR
PA injurySQ90°85.47.565.348.50.921.95
Palp PA85.368.185.477.42.670.22
Palp adductor62.146.566.2421.160.82
Hip IR limited86.615.363.440.71.020.88
Cross-over +ve4564.167.940.81.250.86
Adductor injurySQ90°89.318.61690.91.10.58
Palp adductor94.647.523.998.11.80.11
Palp PA53.630.
Hip IR limited82.113.414.281.10.951.34
Cross-over +ve41.158.414.685.10.991.01
Hip injurySQ90°67.218.81572.80.831.74
Hip IR limited90.115.314.
Cross-over +ve34.656.717.776.20.801.15
  • Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for tests shown.

  • Cross-over +ve, pain on cross-over test; L, left side; NPV, negative predictive value; PA, pubic aponeurosis, Hip IR limited, limited hip internal rotation; Palp adductor, palpatory tenderness of the adductor origin; Palp PA, palpatory tenderness of the pubic aponeurosis; PPV, positive predictive value; R, right side; Sens, sensitivity; Spec, specificity; SQ0°, adductor squeeze test at 0° hip flexion; SQ45°, adductor squeeze test at 45° hip flexion; SQ90°, adductor squeeze test at 90° hip flexion.