Table 1

Critical appraisal of included economic papers using Drummond et al's32 checklist

StudyWell-defined question posed in answerable formComprehensive description of the competing alternatives givenEffectiveness of the programme or service establishedAll important and relevant costs and consequences for each alternative identifiedCosts and consequences measured accurately in appropriate physical unitsCost and consequences valued crediblyCosts and consequences adjusted for differential timingIncremental analysis of costs and consequences of alternatives performedAllowance made for uncertainty in the estimates of cost and consequencesPresentation and discussion of study results included all issues of concerns to users
Anokye et al35YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes, probabilistic sensitivity analysisYes
Boehler et al36YesYesYesYesYesYesNot relevantYesYes, probabilistic sensitivity analysisYes
Cobiac et al44YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes, probabilistic sensitivity analysisYes
Dalziel et al40YesYesYesOnly included programme costs—cost of downstream events not included eg, CVD, diabetesYesNot all sources cited (eg, source for overhead costs)YesYesYes, probabilistic sensitivity analysisYes
Elley et al42YesYesYesYesYesNot all sources cited (eg, source for overhead costs)YesYes but excluded lost productivity from calculation (reason given by authors)Yes, one way sensitivity analysisYes
Elley et al41YesYesYesYesYesYesMostly; second year costs not discountedYesYes, one way sensitivity analysis and hypothesis test but of geometric meansYes
Gulliford et al37YesInsufficient detailYesYesYesInsufficient detailYesYesYes, probabilistic sensitivity analysisYes
Leung et al43YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes, probabilistic sensitivity analysisYes
Lindgren et al46YesYes but hypothetical interventionYesYesYesAuthors state time and travel costs not includedYesYesProbabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analysisYes
Over et al47YesYesYesInsufficient detailInsufficient detailNot all sources cited (cost, utility)YesYesYes, probabilistic sensitive analysisYes
Pringle et al38YesUnclear if usual practice and all the relevant comparators included, although full details provided in referenced sourcesInsufficient detail about source of studyOut-of-pocket expenditure excludedYesYesYesYesYes, one way sensitivity analysisMinimal information about economic model and sensitivity analysis, although references to more details are provided
Shaw et al39YesYesYesRestricted to intervention costsYesSources cited but not clear which relates to which unit costNot applicable to within-trial analysis, threshold analysis for £/QALY does not appear to take discounting into accountYesMentioned but not described in detailDiscussion limited by broad scope of the paper (qualitative and economic analysis in one paper)
Sims et al45YesYesYesYesYesNot all sources citedNot clearly mentionedYesYes, univariate sensitivity analysisYes but not in detail
  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; QALY, quality-adjusted life year.