Table 3

Results of the unadjusted and adjusted Cox regression models for the variables tested

IndicatorUnit/qualifierUnadjusted modelAdjusted model
HR95% CIp ValueHR95% CI
Main exposure of interest
 Shoe versionStandard shoes is ref0.59*0.39 to 0.910.016†0.55*0.36 to 0.85
Participants’ characteristics
 AgeYears0.990.97 to 1.010.150†0.990.97 to 1.02
 SexMale is ref1.020.67 to 1.540.944
 BMI1 kg/m2 increase1.07*1.01 to 1.150.034†1.050.98 to 1.12
 Previous injuryNo (previous injury) is ref2.77*1.82 to 4.21<0.001†2.70*1.77 to 4.11
 Running experienceYears0.990.97 to 1.020.527
 Regularity (last 12 months)Months0.90*0.82 to 0.990.028†0.910.83 to 1.01
 Foot morphologyNeutral is ref
Supinated (and highly)1.270.72 to 2.240.405†1.420.80 to 2.54
Pronated (and highly)1.340.84 to 2.150.225†1.430.88 to 2.30
Sport participation pattern
 Other sports frequencySessions/week1.040.91 to 1.180.617
 Running frequencySessions/week0.780.61 to 1.010.057†0.820.62 to 1.08
 Mean session durationmin1.000.99 to 1.010.974
 Mean session distancekm0.90*0.83 to 0.980.014†0.930.86 to 1.02
 Mean session intensityau0.910.73 to 1.140.424
  • *Significant results.

  • †Variables with p value <0.200 or used for the stratified randomisation were included in the adjusted model; total volume of exposure: 12 094 h; au, arbitrary unit; BMI, body mass index. ‡Years of regular practice of running.