Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

Injury typePopulationStudy designInjury was present at the time of collecting kinetic dataData collection methodRunning speedN (injured/uninjured)Sex (M/F)Age (years)Height (cm)Weight (kg)/(BMI (kg/m2)
Azevedo et al 200910Achilles tendinopathyRunnersccYesOvergroundI: 10.7 km/h; U: 10.8 km/h (self-selected)42 (21/21)I: 16/5; U: 16/5I: 42±10; U: 39±10I: 178±7 U: 174±8I: 78±13; U: 70±11
Baur et al 200419Achilles tendinopathyRunnersccYesTreadmill12 km/h (fixed)22 (8/14)NST: 36±9T: 179±5T: 73±8
Bennel et al 200425Tibial stress fractureRunnersccNoOverground14.4 km/h (fixed)36 (13/22)0/36I: 29±8; U: 31±7I: 169±6; U: 165±6I: 64±6; U: 60±9
Bischof et al 201026Metatarsal stress fractureRunnersccNoOverground11.9 km/h (fixed)24 (9/15)0/24I: 24±6; U: 22±3I: 173±6; U:165±8I: 70±9; U: 59±7
Bredeweg et al 201322General running-related injuriesRunnerspcNoTreadmill9 km/h (fixed)210 (34/176)I: 11/23; U: 66/110T: 37±11NS(T: 24±3)
Crossley et al 199927Tibial stress fractureRunnersccNoOverground14.4 km/h (fixed)46 (23/23)46/0I: 25±5; U:24±6I: 179±8; U: 178±7I: 76±9; U:74±8
Duffey et al 200030Anterior knee painRunnersccYesOverground12.1 km/h (training pace)169 (99/70)I: 68/31; U: 53/17I: 36±8; U: 35±10I:172±9; U: 175±11I: 70±12 U: 70±13
Esculier et al 201531Patellofemoral pain syndromeRunnersccYesTreadmillI: 9.0 km/h; U: 9.2 km/h41 (21/20)I: 5/16; U: 5/15I: 34±6; U: 33±6I: 168±7; U: 169±7I: 67±12; U: 63±9
Gerlach et al 200521General running-related injuriesRunnerspcNoTreadmill9.7–16.2 km/h (5 km race pace)87 (48/39)0/87T: 37±9T: 164±6T: 59±7
Grimston et al 199118Tibial and femoral neck stress fracturesRunnersccNoOverground14.4 km/h (fixed)14 (6/8)0/14I: 27±3; U: 33±1I: 166±1; U: 161±3I: 56±1; U: 53±2
Hreljac et al 200033Running-related injuries at or below the kneeRunners/triathletesccNoOverground14.4 km/h (fixed)40 (20/20)I: 12/8; U: 12/8I:I: 171±10; U: 173±9I: 69±14; U: 69±11
McCrory et al 199923Achilles tendinopathyRunnersccYesOvergroundI: 12.9 km/h; U: 12.3 km/h (training pace)89 (31/58)NSI: 38±10; U: 35±9I: 175±8; U: 175±8I: 71±10; U: 70±10
Messier et al 199132Anterior knee painRunnersccYesOvergroundI: 11.7 km/h; U: 12.4 km/h (training pace)36 (16/20)I: 12/4; U: 14/6NSNSNS
Messier et al 199511Iliotibial band friction syndromeRunnersccYesOverground12.1 km/h (training pace)118 (48/70)1I:33/23; U: 53/17I: 34±9±35±10I:171±10; U:174±9I: 66±14; U:70±11
Milner et al 200628Tibial stress fractureRunnersccNoOverground13.3 km/h (fixed)40 (20/20)0/40I: 26±9; U: 25±9NSNS
Pohl et al 200829Tibial stress fractureRunnersccNoOverground13.3 km/h (fixed)60 (30/30)0/60Ì: 28±10; U: 25±9I: 165±6; U: 165±6I: 57±6; U: 60±6
Pohl et al 200924Plantar fasciitisRunnersccNoOverground13.3 km/h (fixed)50 (25/25)0/50I: 31±10; U: 31±10I: 166±6; U: 167±7I: 62±6; U:64±9
Zifchock et al 200620Tibial stress fractureRunnersccNoOverground13.3 km/h (fixed)49 (24/25)0/49I: 27±9; U:24±9I: 163±6; U: 164±6I: 56±5;U: 58±5
  • Study included 126 participants. Anthropometric data are reported for 120 participants and VGRF data for 118 participants.

  • BMI, body mass index; CC, case–control study; F, females; I, injured subjects/cases; M, males; NS, not stated; PC, prospective cohort study; T, total group of subjects; U, uninjured subjects/controls; VGRF, vertical ground reaction force.