Table 2

Comparison of injury recurrence patterns between three cohorts of male football players

Top-level n (%)Elite n (%)Amateur n (%)p Value*
Activity†p=0.086p<0.001p=0.098
 Training789 (17.2)539 (27.4)11 (25.6)<0.001
 Match play826 (15.9)255 (21.1)29 (42.8)<0.001
Location main†p<0.001p=0.008p=0.313
 Head & neck7 (5.6)2 (5.7)00.942
 Upper limbs41 (11.5)14 (15.4)00.569
 Trunk/back104 (16.8)63 (24.9)1 (12.5)0.020
 Lower limbs1463 (16.9)715 (25.5)39 (37.9)<0.001
Location specific lower limbs†p=0.004p<0.001p=0.717
 Hip/groin278 (17.1)222 (33.9)5 (41.7)<0.001
 Thigh482 (17.6)180 (24.2)5 (45.5)<0.001
 Knee289 (17.4)133 (22.5)14 (35.0)<0.001
 Lower leg/Achilles tendon189 (18.7)86 (26.2)8 (53.3)<0.001
 Ankle193 (14.7)73 (19.0)6 (28.6)0.037
 Foot32 (10.4)21 (21.4)1 (25.0)<0.001
Type‡†p<0.001p<0.001p=0.031
 Fracture30 (7.4)8 (7.6)00.958
 Other bone injury15 (18.8)14 (51.9)00.001
 Dislocation/subluxation22 (14.2)11 (28.9)00.086
 Sprain/ligament injury220 (11.1)82 (13.7)4 (14.3)0.209
 Meniscus/cartilage injury82 (23.3)37 (28.5)00.243
 Muscle rupture/strain/cramps690 (16.4)276 (24.4)15 (48.4)<0.001
 Tendon injury/rupture/tendinosis180 (21.8)107 (32.1)7 (43.8)<0.001
 Nerve injury8 (18.6)3 (42.9)00.151
 Synovitis/effusion124 (32.7)39 (39.8)3 (37.5)0.412
 Overuse unspecified176 (18.7)203 (31.4)11 (47.8)<0.001
 Other injury68 (17.4)14 (21.9)00.355
Onset†p<0.001p<0.001p=0.014
 Overuse780 (21.1)503 (31.7)28 (45.2)<0.001
 Acute835 (13.8)291 (18.3)12 (23.1)<0.001
Severity (days)†p<0.001p=0.006p=0.090
 0–3231 (15.6)238 (29.0)3 (17.6)<0.001
 4–7310 (13.9)196 (23.0)12 (48.0)<0.001
 8–28703 (17.0)239 (22.7)18 (41.9)<0.001
 >28371 (19.3)121 (26.7)7 (24.1)0.002
  • Percentages show injury recurrence proportions within each injury category.

  • *p Values for overall comparison between column proportions (χ2 test).

  • †p Values for comparison within column proportions (χ2 test).

  • ‡Contusions, lacerations, abrasions, concussions and dental injuries were not eligible for categorisation into recurrence or not,27 and were excluded from analyses.