Table 3

Included studies examining the effects of resistance training in youth athletes

Author, yearN ExpN ConBiological ageChronological ageSexSportRT exerciseTPTFTISetsRepsRestPEDro
Alves 201027*EG I: 9
EG II: 8
6NA17.4±0.6MSoccerEG I (1/week): CT (eg, squats and skippings; leg extension and jumps)618516NA4
EG II (2/week): CT (eg, squats and skippings; leg extension and jumps)628516NA
Athanasiou 2004331010NA13–15MBasketballMB and FW (eg, incline press, leg extension, leg curl)82NA314NA2
Behringer 201334EG I: 13
EG II: 10
10(post-) pubertalEG I: 15.1±1.8; EG II: 15.5±0.9; CG: 14.6±1.8MTennisEG I: MB (eg, low pulley, dead lift, leg press, lateral pull down)8275215605
EG II: PT (lower and upper body: eg, skipping, lateral barrier hop, push-ups)82NA41320
Bishop 2009351111NAEG: 13.1±1.4; CG: 12.6±1.9NDSwimmingPT (lower body: eg, hurdle jumps, DJ, jump to box)82NA3560–906
Brown 1986361313NA15.0±0.7MBasketballPT (lower body: DJ (dropping height: 45 cm)123NA31030–454
Cavaco 201423*EG I: 5
EG II: 5
6NAEG I: 13.8±0.5
EG II: 14.2±0.5
CG: 14.2±0.8
MSoccerEG I (1/ week): CT (eg, squats and linear/non-linear sprints)6185361805
EG II (2/week): CT (eg, squats and linear/non-linear sprints)628536180
Chelly 2009371111NAEG: 17±0.3; CG: 17±0.5MSoccerFW (squats)828044NA4
Chelly 2014381211NA17.4±0.5MHandballPT (upper and lower body: eg, hurdle jumps, DJ, push-ups)82NA410NA6
Chelly 2015391413Prepubertal11.9±1.0MTrack and fieldPT (lower body: ie, hurdle jumps, DJ)103NA510NA5
Christou 20064099(post-) pubertalEG: 13.8±0.4; CG:13.5±0.9MSoccerMB and FW (eg, leg press, bench press, leg extension, pec-dec)162683121504
DeRenne 199641EG I: 7
EG II: 8
6NA13.3±1.3MBaseballEG I (1/week): MB and FW (eg, bench press, leg extension, leg curl)12188110NA3
EG II (2/week): MB and FW (eg, bench press, leg extension, leg curl)12288110NA
Escamilla 2010421717NA12.9±1.7; CG: 12.5±1.5MBaseballFT (upper body; elastic tubes)42NA123NA4
Fernandez-Fernandez 2013431515NAEG: 13.2±1.6; CG: 13.2±0.5MTennisFT (core training; own body weight)63NA217585
Ferrete 201424*1113NAEG: 9.3±0.3
CG: 8.3±0.3
MSoccerCT (eg, squats and CMJ)262NA37NA6
Gorostiaga 19994499(post-) pubertalEG: 15.1±0.7; CG: 15.1±0.5MHandballMB (eg, leg press, leg curl, bench press)626548904
Gorostiaga 200445811NAEG: 17.3±0.5; CG: 17.2±0.7MSoccerFW (eg, squats, power clean) and PT (eg, hurdle jumps, box jumps)112NA341205
Granacher 2011461414(post-) pubertalEG: 16.7±0.6; CG: 16.8±0.7M and Feg, soccerMB (eg, squats, leg press, calf raise)82355101506
Hetzler 199747EG I: 10
EG II: 10
10(post-) pubertalEG I: 13.2±0.9; EG II: 13.8±0.6; CG: 13.9±1.1MBaseballEG I (novice): MB and FW (eg, bench press, leg curl, leg press, biceps curls)123563101804
EG II (experienced): MB and FW (eg, bench press, leg press, biceps curls)12356310180
Keiner 201448EG I: 14
EG II: 30
EG III: 18
CG I: 12
CG II: 21
CG III: 17
NAEG and CG I: U17
EG and CG II: U15
EG and CG III: U13
NASoccerEG I: FW (eg, squats, bench press) (U17)80283572203
EG II: FW (eg, squats, bench press) (U15)8028357220
EG III: FW (eg, squats, bench press) (U13)8028357220
Klusemann 201249EG I: 13
EG II: 11
12NAM: 14±1; F: 15±1M and FBasketballEG I: FT (body weight RT; supervised)62NANANANA2
EG II: FT (body weight RT; video-based)62NANANANA
Kotzamanidis 2005501111NAEG: 17.1±1.1; CG: 17.8±0.3MSoccerNA (conventional RT)133874NA1803
Martel 200551109NA15±1FVolleyballPT (lower body: eg, power skips, single leg bounding; aquatic)62NA4NA305
Matavulj 200152EG I: 11
EG II: 11
11NA15–16MBasketballEG I: PT (lower body: DJ; dropping height: 50 cm)63NA310304
EG II: PT (lower body: DJ; dropping height: 100 cm)63NA31030
Meylan 2009531411NAEG: 13.3±0.6; CG: 13.1±0.6MSoccerPT (lower body: eg, hurdle jumps, lateral bounding, skipping)82NA39904
Potdevin 2011541211(post-) pubertalEG: 14.3±0.2; CG: 14.1±0.2M and FSwimmingPT (lower body: eg, DJ, hurdle jumps)62NA310NA5
Ramirez-Campillo 2014a55EG I: 10
EG II: 10
EG III: 10
10NAEG I: 11.6±1.4; EG II: 11.4±1.9; EG III: 11.2±2.3; CG: 11.4±2.4MSoccerEG I: PT (lower body; vertical PT)
EG II: PT (lower body; horizontal PT)
EG III: PT (lower body; combined vertical and horizontal PT)
62NA38605
62NA3860
62NA2860
Ramirez-Campillo 2014b56EG I: 8
EG II: 8
8NA13.0±2.3MSoccerEG I: PT (lower body: vertical and horizontal jumps)62NA25605
EG II: PT (lower body: vertical and horizontal jumps; progressive PT)62NA2860
Ramirez-Campillo 2014c573838(post-) pubertal13.2±1.8MSoccerPT (lower body: DJ)7NANA210905
Ramirez-Campillo 2014d58EG I: 13
EG II: 13
EG III: 11
14Prepubertal10.4±2.3MSoccerEG I: PT (lower body: DJ; 30 s interest rest)72NA210305
EGII: PT (lower body: DJ; 60 s interest rest)72NA21060
EG III: PT (lower body: DJ; 90 s interest rest)72NA210120
Ramirez-Campillo 2015a59EG I: 54
EG II: 48
55(post-) pubertalEG I: 14.2±2.2; EG II: 14.1±2.2; CG: 14.0±2.3MSoccerEG I: PT (lower body: vertical and horizontal jumps; 24 h recovery between sessions)62NA281205
EG II: PT (lower body: vertical and horizontal jumps; 48 h recovery between sessions)62NA28120
Ramirez-Campillo 2015b60EG I: 12
EG II: 16
EG III: 12
14NA11.4±2.2MSoccerEG I: PT (lower body: bipedal jumps)62NA68NA5
EG II: PT (lower body: monopedal jumps)62NA38NA
EG III: PT (lower body: monopedal and bipedal jumps62NA28NA
Rubley 201161106NA13.4±0.5FSoccerPT (lower body: eg, hurdle jumps, DJ)141NA210NA4
Saeterbakken 2011621410NAEG: 16.6±0.3FHandballFT (sling-training)628745904
Sander 201363EG I: 13
EG II: 30
EG III: 18
CG I: 15
CG II: 25
CG III: 33
NAEG and CG I: U17
EG and CG II: U15
EG and CG III: U13
NASoccerEG I: FW (eg, squats, bench press) (U17)80283572202
EG II: FW (eg, squats, bench press) (U15)8028357220
EG III: FW (eg, squats, bench press) (U13)8028357220
Santos 2008261510(post-) pubertalEG: 14.7±0.5
CG: 14.2±0.4
MBasketballCT (eg, pull over, decline press, depth jump, cone hops)162703111504
Santos 2011641410(post-) pubertalEG: 15.0±0.5; CG: 14.5±0.4MBasketballPT (lower and upper body: eg, hurdle jumps, box jumps)102NA3101205
Santos 2012651510(post-) pubertalEG: 14.5±0.6; CG: 14.2±0.4MBasketballMB (eg, leg press, lat pull down, leg extension, pullover)10275311NA3
Siegler 2003661717NA16.5±0.9; CG: 16.3±1.4FSoccerFW (eg, squat, leg extensions, calf raises, leg curls) + PT (eg, box jumps, bouncing, skipping)102NA3NANA3
Söhnlein 2014671210NAEG: 13.0±0.9; CG: 12.3±0.8NASoccerPT (lower body: vertical, horizontal and lateral jumps)162NA311NA2
Tsimachidis 201025*1313(post-) pubertalEG: 18.0±1.2; CG:18.0±0.7NABasketballCT (eg, squats and sprints)102845735
Weston 2015681010NAEG: 15.7±1.2; CG: 16.7±0.9M and FSwimmingFT (core training: bridge, straight-leg raise; own body weight)123NA3NA602
Wong 2010692823NAEG: 13.5±0.7; CG: 13.2±0.6MSoccerFW (eg, forward lunge, back half squat, biceps curls)122NA39852
Zribi 2014702526prepubertalEG: 12.1±0.6; CG: 12.2±0.4MBasketballPT (lower body: DJ, hurdle jumps)92NA851804
  • *Complex training study, reported training parameters referring only to strength-based exercises.

  • †Seperate training of free weights RT and plyometric training.

  • CG, control group; CMJ, counter movement jump; CT, complex training; DJ, drop jump; EG, experimental group; F, female; FT, functional training; FW, free weights; M, male; MB, machine based; N Con, number of participants in the control group; N Exp, number of participants in the experimental group; NA, not applicable; PT, plyometric training; Reps, number of repetition per set; Rest, time of rest between sets (seconds); RT, resistance training; Sets, number of sets per exercise; TF, training frequency (times per week); TI, training intensity (% of 1 repetition maximum); TP, training periods (weeks).