Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

AuthorPublication yearDuration of condition (weeks)Follow-up (weeks)TreatmentsNumber of patientsFemale patients
N (%)
Average age (years)Outcomes (mean±SD)
Pain scoreDASH/Quick DASH*
Price et al361991NA24PLA2911 (38)46−3.80±1.82
CS5927 (46)47−2.70±2.43
Akermark et al351995>1326GSGPS3415 (44)46−2.98±2.21
PLA3114 (45)42−2.13±2.62
Hay et al411999NA26CS5322 (42)NA−4.44±2.97
PLA5828 (48)NA−3.33±2.70
Newcomer et al342001<426CS2010 (50)46−4.14±1.36
PLA1910 (53)45−3.05±1.37
Smidt et al402002NA26CS6234 (55)47−2.70±2.60
PLA5931 (53)46−3.40±2.60
Wong et al332005>1312BT3025 (83)46−4.20±1.97
PLA3024 (80)44−2.27±2.07
Bisset et al392006>626CS6525 (38)48−2.35±2.51
PLA6724 (36)47−4.15±2.33
Placzek et al322007>1718BT6837 (54)47−3.49±0.27
PLA6232 (52)47−2.57±0.30
Tonks et al382007>267CS12NA48−2.88±1.80
PLA12NA430.34±1.43
Lindenhovius et al312008<2626CS2717 (63)50−3.40±4.11−1300±19.52
PLA3018 (60)51−2.90±2.11−16.00±17.69
Scarpone et al302008>2616PRO126 (50)48−4.60±0.69
PLA124 (33)48−1.00±1.61
Dogramaci et al62009NA26CS2517 (68)43−5.48±1.48
PEP2512 (48)47−7.16±1.10
CS+PEP2514 (56)50−7.08±2.41
Espandar et al292010>2616BT2422 (92)43−4.31±2.11
PLA2422 (92)44−3.19±1.57
Kazemi et al282010<528CS3026 (87)47−3.00±2.54−19.90±19.35*
AB3023 (77)47−5.56±1.68−44.70±14.02*
Lin et al272010NA12CS103 (30)45−1.44±2.70
BT95 (56)46−1.14±2.85
Ozturan et al372010>2626CS+PEP2010 (50)46−3.35±1.38
AB+PEP2011 (55)44−5.06±1.33
Peerbooms et al262010>2626PRP+PEP5126 (51)47−3.75±2.73
CS+PEP4926 (53)47−0.92±2.02
Petrella et al252010>1313HYA16574 (45)49−6.80±1.42
PLA16678 (47)47−1.00±1.29
Thanasas et al24201126AB+PEP133 (23)37−3.47±1.12
PRP+PEP145 (36)36−4.32±1.14
Wolf et al232011<2626PLA912 (41)49−4.00±2.65−28.00±10.48
CS9−3.00±1.40−24.00±13.50
AB10−2.00±2.79−18.00±15.32
Omar et al222012NA6PRP159 (60)41−4.20±1.71−39.00±11.88
CS1510 (67)38−4.30±1.90−37.10±12.57
Coombes et al422013>626CS4316 (37)49−1.77±1.73
PLA4117 (42)50−3.13±1.73
Jindal et al212013NA6AB2511 (44)39−4.36±1.62
CS258 (32)37−3.92±1.47
Krogh et al82013>1313PRP+PEP2011 (55)48−1.20±1.97
PEP2011 (55)45−0.66±1.97
CS209 (45)44−1.42±1.97
Mardani-Kivi et al202013>612CS4930 (61)44.9−4.90±2.74−27.10±22.36*
PLA5129 (57)44.6−3.30±2.34−23.10±26.29*
Rabago et al192013>1316PRO+PEP205 (25)46.5−2.35±2.17
PLA124 (33)51.7−0.78±2.18
Stenhouse et al182013>2626PRP+PEP157 (47)53.2−3.92±3.26
PEP138 (62)47.6−2.37±3.48
  • *, Quick DASH Score. AB, autologous blood; BT, botulinum toxin A; CS, corticosteroid; DASH, disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand; GSG, glycosaminoglycan; HYA, hyaluronic acid; NA, not available; PEP, peppering technique; PLA, placebo; PRO, prolotherapy; PRP, platelet-rich plasma; PS, polysulfate.