Table 1

Quality assessment list; criteria for quality score (positive, negative or unclear)

ItemDescription and criteria
Study population
1Study groups (patients and controls) are clearly defined: Positive if at least four of the following items in both groups were reported at baseline: age, gender, BMI, physical activity, previous treatments and duration of symptoms
2Comparable groups: Positive if the study controls are comparable to the patients for age and gender
3Number of cases50: Positive if the total number of cases (patients) was ≥50
Study design
4Inclusion and exclusion criteria: Positive if inclusion and exclusion criteria were described
  • Inclusion: A clear definition for plantar fasciopathy

  • Exclusion: A clear definition of the exclusion criteria

Assessment of determinant and outcome
5Definition of determinant: Positive if a clear definition of potential determinant (variable that might be associated with plantar fasciopathy) was described
6Assessment of determinant: Positive if the type and methods of measurement and the setting were described and suitable
Analysis and data presentation
7Data presentation: Positive if risk estimates were presented or when raw data were given that allow for the calculation of risk estimates, such as ORs, prevalence ratios or relative risks
8Consideration of confounders: Positive if at least three of the following confounders were considered and described: activity levels and/or standing time, systemic disease, foot alignment, BMI, age and gender
9Control for confounding: Positive if, for a minimum of three confounders mentioned in item 8, the method used to control for confounding was described
  • BMI, body mass index.