Table 1

Examples of measurement tools to monitor external and internal load

Load typeExamples of measurements
External loadTraining or competition time (seconds, minutes, hours or days)36
Training or competition frequency (eg, sessions or competitions per day, week, month)37
Type of training or competition38
Time-motion analysis (eg, global positioning system analysis)39
Power output, speed, acceleration40
Neuromuscular function (eg, jump test, isokinetic dynamometry and plyometric push-up)41
Movement repetition counts (eg, pitches, throws, bowls, serves and jumps)42 43
Distance (eg, kilometres run, cycled or swam)44
Acute:chronic load ratio45
Internal loadPerception of effort (eg, rating of perceived exertion and RPE)46
Session rating of perceived effort (eg, session duration (min)√óRPE)28
Psychological inventories (eg, profile of mood states (POMS),47 recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (REST-Q-Sport),48 daily analysis of life demands for athletes (DALDA),49 total recovery scale (TQR),17 life events survey for collegiate athletes (LESCA),50 multicomponent training distress scale (MTDS),51 the hassle and uplift scale,52 brief COPE,53 the Swedish universities scales of personality (SSP),54 state trait anxiety inventory (STAI),55 sport anxiety scale (SAS),56 athletic coping skills inventory-28 (ACSI-28),57 body consciousness scale,58 perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire (PMCSQ)59 and commitment to exercise scale (CtES))60
Sleep (eg, sleep quality and sleep duration)61
Biochemical/hormonal/immunological assessments18 26
Psychomotor speed62
HR to RPE ratio64
HR recovery (HRR)65
HR variability (HRV)66
Training impulse (TRIMP)67
Blood lactate concentrations68
Blood lactate to RPE ratio69
  • HR, heart rate; RPE, ratings of perceived exertion.