Table 3

Summary of reviewed studies including study design, ages, duration, frequency, type, verbal feedback, total study scores and ACL injury

Study (years)Study designAge (mean±SD)*DurationFrequencyTypeVerbal feedbackTotal study scoresNumber of ACL injury
Hewett et al (1999)31Prospective non-randomised cohort14–18 years (range)60–90 min3 days per week in preseasonStretching, plyometrics, weight trainingYes115 (control)
2 (intervention)
Soderman et al (2000)18Prospective randomised controlC:20.4±5.4 years
I: 20.4±4.6 years
10–15 minEach day for 30 days. 3 days per week rest of the seasonBalance with balance boardsNo51 (control)
4 (intervention)
Heidt et al (2000)19Prospective randomised control14–18 years (range)75 min3 days per week in preseasonCardiovascular, plyometrics, strength, flexibility, agility and sports-specific drillsNo108 (control)
1 (intervention)
Myklebust et al (2003)20Prospective non-randomised cross over21–22 years15 min3 days per week for 5–7 weeks. Once a week for rest of the seasonBalance with mats and wobble boardsNo in first intervention
Yes in second intervention
529 (control year)
23 (first intervention year)
17 (second intervention year)
Mandelbaum et al (2005)21Prospective non-randomised cohort14–18 years (range)20 min2–3 times per week in in-seasonBasic warm-up, stretching, strengthening, plyometrics and agilityNo1067 (control)
6 (intervention)
Olsen et al (2005)22Prospective cluster randomised controlled16–17 years15–20 min15 consecutive sessions. Once a week for rest of the seasonWarm-up, technique, balance, strength and powerYes99 (control)
3 (intervention)
Petersen et al (2005)30§Prospective matched cohortC:19.8
I: 19.4 years
10 min3 times per week in preseason. Once per week for rest of the seasonEducation, balance board exercise, jump trainingYes85 (control)
1 (intervention)
Pfeiffer et al (2006)23Prospective non-randomised cohort14–18 years (range)20 min2 times per week in in-seasonPlyometricsNo83 (control)
3 (intervention)
Steffen et al (2008)24Prospective block randomised controlled15.4 years15 min15 consecutive sessions. Once a week for rest of the seasonCore stability, balance, plyometricsYes85 (control)
4 (intervention)
Gilchrist et al (2008)25Prospective cluster randomised controlledC:19.9 years
I: 19.9 years
20 min3 times per week in in-seasonBasic warm-up, stretching, strengthening, plyometrics and agilityYes918 (control)
7 (intervention)
Pasanen et al (2008)26Prospective cluster randomised controlled24 years20–30 min2–3 times per week for preseason (intensive training period) and once a week in in-season (maintenance period)Running techniques, balance and body control, plyometrics, strengtheningYes104 (control)
6 (intervention)
Kiani et al (2010)27Prospective cluster non-randomised cohortC: 15.0
I: 14.7 years
20–25 min2 days per week for 2 months. Once a week for rest of the seasonCore strengthening, balanceNo95 (control)
0 (intervention)
LaBella et al (2011)28Prospective cluster randomised controlledC: 16.2
I: 16.2 years
20 min3 times per week in preseason and in-seasonStrengthening, plyometrics, balance, agilityYes116 (control)
2 (intervention)
Walden et al29Prospective cluster randomised controlledC: 14.1
I: 14.0 years
15 min2 times per weekCore stability, balance, jump-landing with knee alignment feedbackNo914 (control)
7 (intervention)
  • *Unless otherwise indicated. ‘C’ stands for control group and ‘I’ stands for intervention group.

  • †Although the study was a randomised controlled design, the follow-up rate was low (51.2%).

  • ‡For the analysis purpose, only the 1st year intervention data was used.

  • §Although there was no specific statement, the neuromuscular training indicated plyometric components.

  • ¶Although there were jump-landing manoeuvers, repeated stretch-shortening cycles were not employed in the training. Therefore, the level of evidence was rated as II.