Table 1

Characteristics of included studies in this systematic review

Author, yearMean ageParticipants (M/F)InterventionFrequency, duration and intensity of aerobic exerciseOutcomes/measure
Barnes 20132972.5263 (22/41)T: dance-based aerobics exercise.
C: stretching
60 min/day, 3 days/week, 12 weeks
60–75% HRmax
Immediate recall/AVLT;
delayed recall/AVLT;
executive function/TMT-B;
verbal fluency/VFT;
visuospatial function/UFOV
Hu 20143070.03204 (149/55)T: jogging and shadow-boxing
C: usual physical activity
90 min/week, 6 months
Moderate intensity
Immediate recall/MMSE;
delayed recall/MMSE
Lam 201231 3277.82389 (92/297)T: Tai Chi
C: stretching and toning exercise
30 min/day, 3 days/week, 1 year
Moderate intensity
Global cognitive function/MMSE;
delayed recall/10 min delayed recall;
attention/digit span (forward);
executive function/ TMT-B;
verbal fluency/VFT
Lam 20153375.50278 (63/215)T: Tai Chi, static bicycle riding and other physical activity
C: social activities
60 min/day, 1 day/week, 1 year
Moderate intensity
Global cognitive function/ADAS-Cog;
delayed recall/list learning delayed recall;
verbal fluency/VFT
Lautenschlager 20083468.65170 (86/84)T: walking.
C: health education
50 min/day, 3 days/week, 24-week
Moderate intensity
Global cognitive function/ADAS-Cog;
immediate recall/word list;
delayed recall/word list;
verbal fluency/VFT
Nagamatsu 201335–3875.3658 (0/58)T: walking.
C: balance and tone
60 min/day, 2 days/week, 6 months
40% heart rate reserve
Immediate recall/AVLT
Nascimento 20143967.7045 (4/41)T: walking.
C: usual physical activity
60 min/day, 3 days/week, 6 months
60–80% HRmax
Global cognitive function/MoCA; executive function/MoCA
Scherder 20054085.0030 (3/27)T: walking.
C: social activities
30 min/day, 3 days/week, 6 weeks
Moderate intensity
Immediate recall/VLMT;
delayed recall/VLMT;
executive function/TMT-A+B;
attention/digit span
van Uffelen 200841–4475.00152 (81/71)T: walking.
C: usual physical activity
1 h/day, 2 days/week, 1 year
>3 metabolic equivalents
Immediate recall/AVLT;
delayed recall/AVLT;
executive function/SCWT-A;
verbal fluency/VFT
Varela 20124578.348 (21/27)T: cycling.
C: recreational activities
30 min/day, 3 days/week, 3 months
40–60% heart rate reserve
Global cognitive function/MMSE
Wei 2014466660 (40/20)T: handball training
C: entertainment
30 min/day, 5 days/week, 6 months
60% HRmax
Global cognitive function/MMSE
  • ADAS-Cog, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale; AVLT, Auditory Verbal Learning Test; C, the control group; DSC, digit symbol coding total; F, female; HRmax, maximum heart rate; M, male; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; SCWT-A, Stroop colour word test–abridge; T, the aerobic exercise group; TMT, Trail-Making Test; UFOV, useful field of view; VFT, verbal fluency test.