Table 1

HIA-1 stage: signs and symptoms of concussion leading to a player's immediate and permanent removal from play7

Section 1: criteria 1 signs of concussionSection 2: symptoms
Tonic posturingHeadache
ConvulsionFeeling of dizziness
Confirmed loss of consciousnessExperiencing ‘pressure in the head’
Suspected loss of consciousnessNauseated or feeling like vomiting
Balance disturbance/ataxiaExperiencing blurred vision
Player not orientated in time, place or personWorried by light or noise
Clearly dazedFeeling as though slowing down
Definite confusionFeeling as if ‘in a fog’
Definite behavioural changeFeeling unwell
On field identification of sign/symptom of concussion
Oculomotor signs (eg, spontaneous nystagmus)