Table 2

Research priorities related to golf and health

Research priority relating to golfCommentWhy required
Mental health and illnessPhysical activity has an overall positive impact on wellness and mental ill health, but robust, controlled studies with objective measures are required in relation to golfWeight of evidence low
Systematic reviews relating to golf and healthTo explore cause and effect nature of the relationships describedScoping review methods cannot answer these specific questions, but have been able to map the evidence landscape and indicate where more focused study is required
Muscle strengthening/strength and balance/musculoskeletal benefitsResearch on the contribution of golf to muscle strengthening/strength and balance, and potential effects in relation to osteoporosis and osteoarthritis could be important to golfers, practitioners and policymakers looking to provide advice to patients and populationsWeight of evidence low/knowledge gap
Golf cartsResearch is needed exploring how health effects/relationships differ between golf played while riding a golf cart and golf played walking the courseWeight of evidence low
SpectatingResearch assessing useful physical activity accrued spectating is required. Opportunities exist to shape health behaviours among spectators on course and in daily life using the experience as a ‘teachable moment’Knowledge gap
Health behaviour changeResearch is needed addressing how golfers and potential golfers can be influenced to take part and maintain golfing activity, and investigating and improving knowledge and behaviours related to golf injuries, illnesses and accidentsWeight of evidence low
Economic effectsResearch investigating cost savings to health and other services associated with golf, and opportunities to make golf more accessible and affordable for all will inform policyWeight of evidence low
Specific populationsResearch addressing associations between golf and health in (1) disabled and (2) older adult populations may highlight specific benefits/disbenefitsWeight of evidence low