Table 3

Effect sizes and 95% CIs for physical activity

StudyPatient-reported outcomeHedges
95% CI
Balance training
 McKeon et al77FADI-Sport−1.11−1.85 to −0.36
 Schaefer and Sandrey68FAAM-Sport−1.43−2.37 to −0.50
 De Ridder et al70FADI-Sport−0.51−1.00 to −0.02
 Wright et al71FAAM-Sport−0.94−1.60 to −0.29
 Lee et al72FADI-Sport−24.29−32.27 to −16.3
 Collins et al74FAAM-Sport−0.48−1.26 to 0.30
 Collins et al—Sham74FAAM-Sport−0.73−1.51 to 0.05
 Schaefer et al—DBT/GISTM68FAAM-Sport−1.95−2.89 to −1.02
 Schaefer et al—DBT/GISTM—Sham68FAAM-Sport−1.65−2.57 to −0.72
 Salom-Moreno et al—TrP-DN75FAAM-Sport−1.47−2.34 to −0.60
 Salom-Moreno et al75FAAM-Sport−0.63−1.39 to 0.13
 Donovan et al—device51FAAM-Sport−1.61−2.48 to −0.74
 Donovan et al—no device51FAAM-Sport−1.33−2.18 to −0.48
Joint mobilisation
 Beazell et al (proximal)76FAAM-Sport0.03−0.68 to 0.75
 Beazell et al (distal)76FAAM-Sport−0.23−0.94 to 0.49
 Hoch et al43FAAM-Sport−0.98−1.83 to −0.14
 Gilbreath et al59FAAM-Sport−0.57−1.43 to 0.28
 McKeon and Wikstrom57FAAM-Sport−0.82−1.47 to −0.18
Resistive training
 Wright et al71FAAM-Sport−0.55−1.18 to 0.08
 McKeon and Wikstrom57FAAM-Sport−0.40−1.03 to 0.23
Soft-tissue mobilisation
 McKeon and Wikstrom57FAAM-Sport−0.45−1.08 to 0.19
  • DBT, dynamic balance training; FAAM, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure; FADI, Foot and Ankle Disability Index; GISTM, Graston instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilisation; TrP-DN, trigger-point dry needling.