Table 2

Proportion of runner and non-runner athletes meeting criteria for categorical body weight, calcium intake and bone health variables

Non-runner athleteEndurance runnerp ValueTotal
Body weight
 <85% Expected weight*22.2% (4)52.9% (27)0.0244.9% (31)
 Low BMI <18.5 kg/m211.1% (2)21.6% (11)0.3318.8% (13)
 BMI Z-score <−1.05.9% (1)21.6% (11)0.1417.6% (12)
 Weight loss†5.9% (1)9.8% (5)0.628.8% (6)
Calcium intake
 Daily milk beverage‡83.3% (15)76.5% (39)0.5478.3% (54)
 Calcium supplement§5.6% (1)23.5% (12)0.0918.8% (13)
 <1 serving daily5.6% (1)11.8% (6)0.4510.1% (7)
Bone health
Low BMD
Z-score <−1.05.6% (1)23.5% (12)0.0918.8% (13)
Z-score ≤−2.00.0% (0)3.9% (2)0.392.9% (2)
 Stress fracture**0.0% (0)16.0% (8)0.1012.3% (8)
  • Group differences evaluated using χ2 analysis.

  • *Expected weight calculated using the Hamwi formula. **History of prior bone stress injury.

  • †Reported losing weight or trying to lose weight in the past year.

  • ‡Daily intake of dairy milk or a fortified non-dairy milk beverage.

  • §Daily intake of a calcium supplement.

  • BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index.