Table 2

Clinical test results and indices of diagnostic utility in the diagnosis of gluteal tendinopathy using MRI as the reference standard

TestTrue +True −False +False −Sensitivity (%)
(95% CI)
Specificity (%)
(95% CI)
PPV (%)
(95% CI)
NPV (%)
(95% CI)
LR+(95% CI)LR−(95% CI)Accuracy (%)
Clinical diagnosis of GT301142060.0 (30/50)
(45.2 to 3.6)
73.3 (11/15)
(44.9 to 92.2)
88.2 (30/34)
(72.5 to 96.7)
35.0 (11/31)
(19.2 to 54.6)
2.25 (0.94 to 5.37)0.55 (0.35 to 0.86)†63
PALP40 781080.0 (40/50)
(66.3 to 89.9)
46.7 (7/15)
(21.3 to 73.4)
83.3 (40/48)
(69.8 to 92.5)
41.2 (7/17)
(18.4 to 67.1)
1.5 (0.92 to 2.46)0.43 (0.20 to 0.93)†72
SLS191503138.0 (19/50)
(24.6 to 52.8)
100 (15/15)100 (19/19)
(78.2 to 100)
32.6 (15/46)
(19.5 to 48.0)
12.2 (0.8 to 191.5)*0.62 (0.50 to 0.77)†52
FADER151323530.0 (15/50)
(17.9 to 44.6)
86.7 (13/15)
(59.5 to 98.3)
88.2 (15/17)
(63.6 to 98.5)
27.1 (13/48)
(15.3 to 41.8)
2.25 (0.58 to 8.75)0.80 (0.62 to 1.06)43
FADER-R221412844.0 (22/50)
(29.9 to 58.7)
93.3 (14/15)
(68.1 to 99.8)
95.6 (22/23)
(78.0 to 99.9)
33.3 (14/42)
(19.6 to 49.5)
6.6 (0.97 to 44.98)0.60 (0.45 to 0.79)†55
FABER211232942.0 (21/50)
(28.2 to 56.8)
80.0 (12/15)
(51.9 to 95.7)
87.5 (21/24)
(67.6 to 97.3)
29.3 (12/41)
(16.1 to 45.5)
2.10 (0.73 to 6.08)0.73 (0.52 to 1.02)51
ADD101324020.0 (10/50)
(10.0 to 33.7)
86.7 (13/15)
(59.5 to 98.3)
83.3 (10/12)
(51.6 to 97.9)
24.5 (13/53)
(13.8 to 31.3)
1.5 (0.37 to 6.11)0.92 (0.72 to 1.18)35
ADD-R191413138.0 (19/50)
(24.6 to 52.8)
93.3 (14/15)
(68.1 to 99.8)
95.0 (19/20)
(75.1 to 99.9)
31.1 (14/45)
(18.2 to 46.6)
5.7 (0.83 to 39.13)0.66 (0.51 to 0.86)†51
  • Positive clinical diagnosis of GT=positive on palpation over greater trochanter, and positive on at least one other clinical test.

  • *Calculation of LR+ for SLS required the addition of 0.5 to each cell,21 because all participants who tested positive on this test had positive MRI findings, that is, 100% specificity.

  • †Significant negative LRs (ie, CI does not contain 1).

  • ADD, adduction; ADD-R, adduction with resisted isometric hip abduction; FABER, Flexion, Abduction, External Rotation; FADER, Flexion, Adduction, External Rotation; FADER-R, Flexion, Adduction, External Rotation with resisted isometric hip internal rotation; False −, negative clinical result and positive MRI; False +, positive clinical result and negative MRI; GT, gluteal tendinopathy; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; NPV, negative predictive value; PALP, palpation; PPV, positive predictive value; SLS, Single Leg Stance; True −, negative clinical result and negative MRI; True +, positive clinical result and positive MRI.