Table 1

Summary of included studies, sorted by duration of intervention and BMI

Study referenceDisease status*Duration of interventionWeight status (based on mean BMI)Study designSample size N=HIIT group (total)Age range (mean±SD)Baseline activity level*Downs and Black scoreStudy quality
38No16 weeksNormalRCT16 (44)20–30 (24.4±3.8)Physically inactive18Fair
17No16 weeksNormalRCT16 (44)20–30 (24.4±3.8)Physically inactive18Fair
39No15 weeksNormalNRCT10 (27)18–32Not engaged in a regular exercise13Low
15MI12 weeksNormalRCT9 (27)(76.5±9)No data19Fair
40No12 weeksNormalCT10 (48)(21.4±1.3)Sports students (15 hour activities/week)14Low
41HTx12 monthsOverweightRCT20 (43)(51±17)No data20Fair
42HTx24 weeksOverweightRCT24 (48)20–72 (56)No data21Fair
16MS16 weeksOverweightRCT9 (28)(55.3±13.2)No data16Fair
43HPN15 weeksOverweightRCT21 (62)36–49 (44±2)Sedentary19Fair
44CAD12 weeksOverweightRCT85 (174)40–75 (57±8.8)No data23High
45No12 weeksOverweightRCT13 (38)18–55 (41.8±2.7)Physically inactive22High
46CAD12 weeksOverweightRCT24 (49)47–78 (64.4)No data22High
47DM212 weeksOverweightRCT14 (43)50–70 (61.2±2.8)No previous exercise training17Fair
48No12 weeksOverweightRCT10 (27)(22.7±5.4)Sedentary (<1 hour/week of structured exercise)19Fair
49No12 weeksOverweightRCT17 (34)18–35(24.4±4.7)Physically inactive19Fair
50No12 weeksOverweightRCT20 (38)18–35 (24.9±4.3)Physically inactive21Fair
51No12 weeksOverweightRCT25 (46)(24.7±4.8)Physically inactive18Fair
52DM212 weeksOverweightRCT7 (15)55–75 (62±3)<150 min of structured exercise per week21Fair
53MI12 weeksOverweightRCT35 (107)(56.7±10.4)No data20Fair
54HPN12 weeksOverweightRCT25 (73)(52.5±7.4)No data19Fair
55MS12 weeksObeseRCT11 (31)(49.8±9.1)Physically inactive20Fair
56No12 weeksOverweightRCT17 (60)19–20No data18Fair
57MS12 weeksObeseRCT11 (43)(49.9±10.1)No data20Fair
58No12 weeksObeseRCT14 (40)(46.9±2.2)No data17Fair
59No10 weeksNormalCT6 (17)(19±2)Moderately trained14Low
60No10 weeksNormalCT22 (22)(20.2±0.7)No data15Low
61No8 weeksNormalRCT14 (42)20–30 (26.4±6.5)Sedentary lifestyle21Fair
62No8 weeksNormalRCT11 (23)18–35 (25.2±0.7)Sedentary to moderately trained16Fair
63No8 weeksNormalRCT20 (36)21–36 (29.8±4.5)Untrained19Fair
64No8 weeksNormalRCT10 (55)(24.6±3.8)No data18Fair
65No7 weeksNormalRCT9 (24)(20.9±0.8)Well trained15Low
66No7 weeksNormalCT12 (12)(22.7±2)Physically active14Low
67No6 weeksNormalRCT8 (16)(22±1)Sedentary (<1 hour of exercise/week)16Fair
68No6 weeksNormalRCT8 (16)(22±1)Sedentary15Low
69No6 weeksNormalRCT19 (44)(21.7±4.4)Recreationally active18Fair
70No6 weeksNormalRCT5 (15)(20±1)Recreationally active16Fair
9No6 weeksNormalCT10 (20)(24±1)Active but untrained14Low
71No6 weeksNormalRCT13 (55)18–31 (21±1)No data19Fair
72No6 weeksNormalRCT10 (20)(23.6±3.2)Not engaged in regular exercise16Fair
73No6 weeksNormalCT7 (14)(20±1)Physically active15Low
74No5 weeksNormalRCT8 (16)(20±1)Recreationally active15Low
75No4 weeksNormalRCT8 (15)(20.2±2.1)Physically active16Fair
76No4 weeksNormalRCT8 (24)(25±0.8)Habitually active but untrained16Fair
77No2 weeksNormalCT20 (29)(25.3±5.5)Recreationally active15Low
78No60 minNormalRCD11 (11)(22.3±4)Physically active17Fair
79No30 minNormalRCD8 (8)(34±7)Physically active17Fair
80DM130 minNormalRCD7 (7)(21.6±4)Physically active14Low
81CAD10 weeksObeseRCT15 (28)(60±7)No data20Fair
82No10 weeksOverweightRCT13 (26)(42.2±2.4)Physically inactive20Fair
83CAD10 weeksOverweightRCT8 (21)(62.9±11.2)No data20Fair
84No8 weeksObeseRCT7 (21)18–64 (40.9±11.7)Sedentary17Fair
85No8 weeksOverweightRCT7 (15)20–40Recreationally active16Fair
86MS6 weeksObeseRCT22 (45)30–65 (51.9±9.2)Physically inactive19Fair
87No6 weeksOverweightRCT8 (16)(27±8)≤2 sessions/week of structured exercise16Fair
88No6 weeksOverweightCT10 (20)(24.3±3.3)Recreationally active15Low
89No4 weeksObeseRCT14 (28)(30.1±6.8)Sedentary16Fair
14CAD4 weeksOverweightRCT28 (59)(60.2±6.9)No data20Fair
90No4 weeksOverweightRCT10 (42)(23.62±4.78)Recreationally active21Fair
91No2 weeksObeseRCT8 (16)(38.7±5.5)Sedentary20Fair
92No14 daysOverweightCT12 (12)(23.7±5.2)Physically inactive15Low
93No2 weeksOverweightCT11 (29)(25.3±5.5)Recreationally active14Low
94No2 weeksOverweightCT7 (7)(45±5)Sedentary16Fair
95DM22 weeksObeseCT8 (8)(63±8)Sedentary18Fair
96No2 weeksOverweightRCT21 (31)(29±3)Recreationally active17Fair
97No2 weeksObeseCT10 (10)18–40 (32.1±8.7)Sedentary (<1 hour/week of structured exercise)15Low
  • Physical inactivity is defined as not meeting at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  • *Disease status and baseline activity level (using the terminology of the primary study) presented were as per inclusion criteria.

  • BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; CT, clinical trial; DM2, diabetes mellitus type 2; HIIT, high-intensity interval training; HPN, hypertension; HTx, heart transplant recipient; min, minute; MI, myocardial infarction; MS, metabolic syndrome; NRCT, non-randomised controlled trial; RCD, randomised cross-over design; RCT, randomised clinical trial.