Table 1

All studies included in the meta-analysis

Authors and locationParticipantsSupplementation protocolTotal dosage (g)Exercise protocol
Baguet et al,7 BelgiumElite male rowers
PL=9; BA=8
5.0 g/day for 49 days2452000 m rowing ergometry
Bellinger et al,13 AustraliaTrained male cyclists
PL=7; BA=7
65 mg/kg BM/day for 4 weeks∼129.44 min maximal cycle bout
Bellinger and Minhan,53 AustraliaTrained male cyclists
PL=7; BA=7
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.21 km cycling TT
4 km cycling TT
10 km cycling TT
Carpentier et al,54 BelgiumPhysically active males and females
PL=13; BA=14
5.6 g/day for 8 weeks313.6Squat jump
45 CMJ fatigue test
Chung et al,55 AustraliaElite/subelite male/female swimmers
PL=/; BA=/
4.8 g/day for 4 weeks followed by 3.2 g/day for 6 weeks268.850–400 m swimming:
Training performance
Competition performance
Chung et al,42 Belgium/AustraliaTrained male cyclists
PL=13; BA=14
6.4 g/day for 6 weeks268.81 hour cycling TT
Cochran et al,56 CanadaHealthy young males
PL=12; BA=12
3.2 g/day for 6 weeks134.4Incremental cycle test
250 kJ cycling TT
Repeated sprint cycle test
del Favero et al,46 BrazilElderly males and females
PL=6; BA=12
3.2 g/day for 12 weeks268.8Constant load submaximal test
Incremental treadmill test
Derave et al,5 BelgiumSprint-trained competitive athletes
PL=7; BA=8
2.4 g/day for 4 days, 3.6 g/day for 4 days, 4.8 g/day up to 5 weeks153.6400 m sprint
Isometric endurance
Maximal isokinetic knee extensions
Ghiasvand et al,57 IranRecreational males
PL=19; BA=20
2.0 g/day for 42 days84Graded exercise test
Glenn et al,58 USAFemale masters athletes
PL=11; BA=11
3.2 g/day for 4 weeks89.6Lower body ISO strength
Hand grip strength
Gross et al,9 SwitzerlandRecreational males
PL=9; BA=9
3.2 g/day for 38 days121.6Maximal incremental cycle
Gross et al,25 SwitzerlandElite male alpine skiers
PL=4; BA=5
4.8 g/day for 5 weeks168Counter movement jump
90 s box jump test
Hill et al,4 UKRecreational males
PL=8; BA=7
4.0 g/day in week 1 rising to 6.4 g/day by week 4 until week 10414.4Cycling capacity test at 110% of PowerMax
Hobson et al,40 UKTrained male rowers
PL=10; BA=10
6.4 g/day for 28 days179.2–1922000 m rowing ergometry
Hoffman et al,59 USAElite male soldiers
PL=9; BA=9
6.0 g/day for 4 weeks1684 km run
120 m sprint
Hoffman et al,60 USAElite male soldiers
PL=9; BA=9
6.0 g/day for 30 days1802.5 km run
1 min sprint
50 m casualty carry
Repeated 30 m sprints
Howe et al,61 AustraliaHighly trained male cyclists
PL=8; BA=8
65 mg/kg BM/day for 4 weeks127.44 min maximal cycle bout
Jagim et al,62 USAAnaerobically trained athletes
PL=11; BA=10
4.0 g/day for 1 week followed by 6.0 g/day for 4 weeks196Run to exhaustion at 115% VO2max
Run to exhaustion at 140% VO2max
James et al,41 UKTrained male cyclists
PL=9; BA=10
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.220 km cycling TT
Jordan et al,63 USARecreational males
PL=9; BA=8
6.0 g/day for 4 weeks168Incremental treadmill run to exhaustion
Okudan et al,64 TurkeyUntrained healthy males
PL=11; BA=11
3.2 g/day for 22 days and 6.4 g/day for 6 days108.83×30 s Wingates
De Salles Painelli et al,47 BrazilMale and female swimmers
PL=7; BA=7
3.2 g/day for 1 week and 6.4 g/day for 3 weeks156.8100 m swimming
200 m swimming
De Salles Painelli et al,43 BrazilTrained male cyclists and recreational males
PL=19; BA=20
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.24×30 s cycle Wingates
Sale et al,18 UKRecreational males
PL=10; BA=10
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.2Cycling capacity test at 110% of PowerMax
Sale et al,65 UKRecreational males
PL=6; BA=7
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.2IKET
Saunders et al,66 UKElite/non-elite male games players
PL=18; BA=18
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.2Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test
Saunders et al,26 UKAmateur male footballers
PL=8; BA=9
3.2 g/day for 12 weeks268.8Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2
Saunders et al,67 UK16 recreational males
PL=8; BA=8
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks followed by 3.2 g/day for 1 week179.2–201.63 sets of 5×6 s repeated sprints
Smith et al,68 USARecreational males
PL=18; BA=18
6.0 g/day for 3 weeks followed by 3.0 g/day for 3 weeks189Cycle capacity at 110% VO2max
Smith et al,69 USARecreational women
PL=11; BA=13
4.8 g/day for 4 weeks134.4Graded exercise test
Smith-Ryan et al,70 USARecreational males
PL=24; BA=26
4.8 g/day for 4 weeks134.4Run to exhaustion at 90% PV
Run to exhaustion at 100% PV
Run to exhaustion at 110% PV
Smith-Ryan et al,71 USARecreational males and females
PL=15; BA=15
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.2Graded exercise test
Stout et al,72 USAMales
PL=13; BA=12
6.4 g/day for 6 days, then
3.2 g/day for 22 days
108.8Incremental cycle to exhaustion
Stout et al,73 USAFemales
PL=11; BA=11
3.2 g/day for 7 days, then
6.4 g/day for 21 days
156.8Incremental cycle to exhaustion
Stout et al,27 USAElderly males and females
PL=14; BA=12
2.4 g/day for 90 days216Discontinuous incremental exercise protocol
Tobias et al,48 BrazilMartial arts male athletes
PL=9; BA=10
6.4 g/day for 4 weeks179.24×30 s upper body Wingates
Van Thienen et al,74 BelgiumWell-trained male cyclists
PL=8; BA=9
2 g/day for 2 weeks, 3 g/day for 2 weeks, then 4 g/day for 4 weeks182Incremental cycle to exhaustion
10 min cycling TT
30 s cycle sprint
Walter et al,75 USARecreational females
PL=19; BA=14
6.0 g/day for 3 weeks followed by 3.0 g/day for 3 weeks189Graded exercise test
Zoeller et al,76 USAHealthy males
PL=13; BA=12
6.4 g/day for 6 days followed by 3.2 g/day for 22 days108.8Incremental cycle to exhaustion
  • BA, β-alanine only group; CMJ, countermovement jump; IKET, isometric knee extension test at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction; ISO, isokinetic strength; PL, placebo group; PV, peak velocity; TT, time trial; VO2max, maximal oxygen uptake.