Table 1

Mainly direct biochemical changes related to exercise

Class of effectEffector molecule or geneEffect of exercise on effector molecule or gene
Cell growth regulatorsIGF-1Decreased levels32–36
IGFBP3Increased levels35 36
Proteins involved in DNA damage repairBRCA1Increased expression41–44
BRCA2Increased expression41–44
Androgen receptor coactivatorsRAS family oncogenesSuppressed activity40
Regulators of apoptosis and cell cycle arrestP53Enhanced activity43–45
Heat shock proteinsEnhanced activity55 61–66
Hormonal systemsOestrogenReduced activity29 70 117 125–143
TestosteroneTransient rise then reduced activity70–84
VIPTransient rise then reduced activity49 51–53
LeptinReduced activity133 138–142 144
IrisinEnhanced activity85–90
ResistinReduced activity123 124 145
Immune system componentsNatural killer cellsEnhanced activity91–97
White cellsEnhanced activity91–94
InflammationC reactive protein, interleukin-6, TNFαReduced activity93–102
ProstaglandinsReduced activity106–114
COX-2Reduced activity106–114
Oxidative stress and antioxidant pathwaysGlutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutaseIncreased activity55 57 59 60
  • COX-2, cyclo-oxidase-2; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide.