Table 2

Outcome measures presented within their allocated construct groupings. Information about the measure and who it was used by. Further information is provided in online supplementary file 2.

InstrumentConstructs evaluatedNumber of items; subscalesScore interpretationUsed by
Mental health measures
36-Item Short Form Health Survey Mental Health Component 72 Generic mental health measure14 items; four subscales (vitality; social functioning; role emotional; mental health)Each subscale 0–100. Higher score = better mental health24, 46, 23, 25, 40, 28, 29, 30, 47, 31, 32, 37
EuroQol—5 Dimensions 3 Level73 Generic quality of life measureFive items; five subscales (only one related to mental health; anxiety/ depression) Three-level version: no problems; moderate problems; extreme problems.
Five-level version: no problems; slight problems; moderate problems; severe problems; extreme problems.
43, 42, 35, 38
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale74 Anxiety and depression14 items; two subscales (anxiety and depression)Each subscale 0–21.
0–7 = non-case
8–10 = possible case
>10 = probable case
27, 26
Modified Karolinska Scales of Personality75 Version featured in this review focused on anxiety10 scales (psychic anxiety; psychasthenia; low assertiveness; somatic anxiety; muscular tension; indirect aggression; verbal aggression; irritability; suspicion; guiltUnable to determine44
Hopkins Symptom Checklist – 25 items76 Mental distress25 items; two = anxiety and depressionEach item 1 = not at all, to 4 = extremely
Average score (1.00–4.00) calculated
Beck Anxiety Inventory77 Anxiety21 itemsEach item 0–3 giving overall score 0–63
Higher scores mean more anxiety
Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory78 Anxiety40 items; two = current state of anxiety (S-anxiety). Stable, trait aspect of anxiety (T-anxiety)Each item 1–4
Scores added with higher scores indicating greater anxiety
Cognitive measures
Pain Catastrophising Scale
Catastrophising13 items; three subscales (rumination, magnification and helplessness)Each item 0 = not at all, to 4 = all the time
Higher overall score means higher levels of catastrophising
27, 26, 43
Coping Strategies Questionnaire80 Coping strategies48 items; eight subscales (diverting attention, reinterpreting pain sensations, catastrophising, ignoring sensations, praying and hoping, coping self-statements, increased behaviour activities)Each item 0 = no control, to 6 = complete control27, 26, 39
Utrecht Coping List81 Coping strategies44 items; seven subscales (active tackling, seeking social support, palliative reacting, avoiding, passive reacting, reassuring thoughts, expression of emotionsUnable to determine41
Amsterdam Biographic Questionnaire82 Unable to determineUnable to determineUnable to determine41
Behavioural measures
Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia71 Fear of movement17 itemsEach item 0 to 4
Higher net score = increased fear of movement
27, 26, 30
Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire83 Fear-avoidance beliefs16 items; two subscales (physical activity and work)Each item 0 to 6
Higher net score = increased fear-avoidance beliefs
33, 34, 36
Carlsson’s Dependency Scale47 DependencyNo instrument information available44
Other related measures
Coop-Wonca Chart84 Generic quality of life measureSix items; only one related to psychological function (feelings)1 to 5
Higher score = more emotional problems
45, 30
Schalling-Sifneos Alexithymia Scale85 Alexithymia20 itemsEach item answered yes or no44
Carlsson’s Stress Scale47 StressNo instrument information available44
WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 86 Overall function (psychological and physical)12 items; 6 domains. 1 directly related to psychological function (cognition)Each item 0 to 4
Higher score = more difficulty