Table 3

Adjusted between-group differences at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after arthroscopy*

OutcomeBiceps tenodesis versus
labral repair
p ValueBiceps tenodesis versus
sham surgery
p ValueLabral repair versus
sham surgery
p Value
Primary outcomes
Rowe score (0 to 100)
 3 Months  −1.3 (−8.7 to 6.0).76  −6.5 (−14.0 to 1.1).09  −5.1 (−12.6 to 2.4).18
 6 Months  −0.2 (−7.5 to 7.1).96  −0.2 (−7.8 to 7.0).92  −0.2 (−7.5 to 7.1).95
 12 Months  −0.2 (−7.1 to 6.6).95   1.8 (−5.2 to 8.8).61   2.1 (−5.9 to 9.0).56
 24 Months   1.0 (−5.4 to 7.4).76   1.6 (−5.0 to 8.1).64   0.6 (−5.9 to 7.0).86
WOSI (0 to 2100)
 3 Months−327 (−728 to 75).11−282 (−700 to 137).19  45 (−370 to 461).83
 6 Months−137 (−335 to 61).17−128 (−328 to 71).20   8 (−189 to 205).93
 12 Months −60 (−254 to 133).53 −15 (−211 to 181).88  45 (−149 to 240).64
 24 Months −96 (−269 to 77).27  22 (−152 to 196).80 118 (−54 to 291).18
Secondary outcomes
OISS (12 to 60)§
 3 Months  −1.8 (−5.4 to 1.8).32  −1.8 (−5.4 to 1.8).32   0.0 (−3.6 to 3.6).99
 6 Months  −2.3 (6.1 to 1.5).56  −1.1 (−5.0 to 2.7).22   1.2 (−5.0 to 2.6).53
 12 Months  −0.8 (−5.4 to 5.0).41   1.8 (−2.3 to 6.5).41   2.6 (−1.6 to 6.9).23
 24 Months   1.0 (−5.5 to 3.5).65   1.6 (−2.9 to 2.3).65   0.6 (−3.9 to 5.1).79
EQ-5D (−0.59 to 1.00)
 3 Months  −0.1 (−0.2 to 0.0).18  −0.1 (−0.2 to 0.0).03  −0.1 (−0.1 to 0.1).41
 6 Months  −0.1 (−0.1 to 0.0).19  −0.1 (−0.2 to 0.0).08   0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1).65
 12 Months   0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1).85   0.0 (0.0 to 0.1).37   0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1).47
 24 Months   0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1).50   0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1).56   0.0 (−0.1 to 0.0).93
EQ-VAS (0 to 100)
 3 Months  −5.8 (−14.8 to 3.2).20  −0.6 (−9.8 to 8.5).90   5.2 (−4.0 to 14.4).26
 6 Months  −7.4 (−15.2 to 0.4).06  −3.1 (−10.9 to 4.8).44   4.4 (−3.4 to −12.1).27
 12 Months  −1.0 (−9.2 to 7.2).82  −1.1 (−9.4 to 7.1).79  −0.2 (−8.4 to 8.1).97
 24 Months  −2.1 (−10.0 to 5.8).50   2.8 (−5.5 to 10.7).49   4.9 (−3.0 to −12.8).23
Main complaint (−9 to +9)
 3 Months  −0.2 (−2.3 to 1.9).87   0.6 (−1.5 to 2.8).55   0.8 (−1.3 to 2.9).44
 6 Months   0.1 (−2.2 to 2.4).93   1.0 (−1.3 to 3.3).40   0.9 (−1.4 to 3.1).44
 12 Months  −0.1 (−2.0 to 1.8).90   0.8 (−1.1 to 2.8).41   1.0 (−0.9 to 2.9).34
 24 Months  −0.1 (−2.0 to 1.8).95   0.2 (−1.4 to 1.9).80   0.3 (−1.4 to 1.3).75
  • The values are expressed as mean (95% CI).

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, baseline score, time, manual labour, physical activity and dominant shoulder. Between-group differences were not significant for any outcome. Time and baseline score significantly predicted outcome.

  • †Higher Rowe scores indicating better shoulder function.

  • ‡Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, lower scores indicating better shoulder function.

  • §Oxford Instability Shoulder Score, lower score indicating better shoulder function.

  • ¶EuroQol (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS), higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life.

  • OISS, Oxford Instability Shoulder Score; WOSI, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index.